Phrygia


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Related to Phrygia: Galatia, Phrygian, Phrygian cap, Pamphylia

Phrygia

(frĭ`jēə), ancient region, central Asia Minor (now central Turkey). The Phrygians, who settled here c.1200 B.C., came from the Balkans and apparently spoke an Indo-European language. A kingdom, associated in Greek legend with the names of MidasMidas
, in Greek mythology, king of Phrygia. Because he befriended Silenus, the oldest of the satyrs, Dionysus granted him the power to turn everything into gold by touch. But when even the food that he touched turned to gold, Midas begged to be relieved of his gift.
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 and GordiusGordius
, in Greek mythology, king of Phrygia. An oracle had told the Phrygians that the king who would put an end to their troubles was approaching in an oxcart, and, thus, when Gordius, a peasant, appeared in his wagon, he was hailed king.
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, flourished from the 8th to the 6th cent. B.C., when it fell with the Cimmerian invasion (676–585 B.C.) and became dominated by Lydia. Phrygia was best known to the Greeks as a source of slaves and as a center of the cult of CybeleCybele
, in ancient Asian religion, the Great Mother Goddess. The chief centers of her early worship were Phrygia and Lydia. In the 5th cent. B.C. her cult was introduced into Greece, where she was associated with Demeter and Rhea.
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. N Phrygia became part of Galatia with the invasion of the Gauls (3d cent. B.C.). The kings of Pergamum ruled much of Phrygia until it passed to the Romans. There has been much archaeological excavation in the area.

Phrygia

 

in antiquity, a region in northwestern Asia Minor populated by the Phrygians, Indo-European tribes that migrated from Europe (Macedonia or Thrace) in the second millennium B.C.

In the 13th century B.C. the Phrygians aided Troy in its war with the Greeks and, when the war ended in ruin for the Trojans, established their own dominion over the Troas. The Phrygians played a major role in the downfall of the Hittite empire (c. 12th century), much of whose territory subsequently came under their control. From the tenth to eighth centuries, Phrygia was a kingdom; its capital was Gordium, a city named after King Gordius. In the ninth century Phrygia came to dominate the Aegean Sea.

At the end of the eighth century, tribes of Bithynians and Mysians began settling in northern and northwestern Phrygia. In the east, clashes with Assyria became more frequent. In the 670’s Cimmerian tribes seized a considerable portion of Phrygia, and in the sixth century, Phrygia fell under Lydian domination, although it retained some measure of autonomy.

In 546, Phrygia, with nearly all of Asia Minor, was seized by the Persian king Cyrus II. It was conquered by Alexander the Great in the fourth century; after Alexander’s death his successors fought among themselves for control of various parts of the region. In 275 the territory of Phrygia east of the Sangarius River (now Sakarya) was seized by the Galatians. The territory west of the river was ruled by Pergamum. In 133, Phrygia west of the Sangarius was incorporated into the Roman province of Asia. Eastern Phrygia became part of the Roman province of Galatia, which was formed in 25 B.C.

REFERENCE

Haspels, E. The Highlands of Phrygia: Sites and Monuments, vols. 1–2. Princeton, N.J., 1973.

Phrygia

an ancient country of W central Asia Minor
References in periodicals archive ?
If Sidney leans toward the Machiavellian position regarding love in the rebellion of the clowns, he leans toward the Ciceronian position regarding fear in the overthrow of the King of Phrygia.(24) Rulers fail to avoid contempt in the New Arcadia through love or fear alone, but Sidney hardly encourages rulers to ignore these passions.
The first group of papers discusses a cross-section of objects from the ancient Near East, especially Iran, Urartu, and Phrygia, that have been found in the Greek world.
Ramsay, The Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia: Being an Essay of the Local History of Phrygia from the Earliest Times to the Turkish Conquest Volume One, Part One (1895; repr., Whitefish: Kessinger Publishing, 2004), 88; Barclay V.
There I was, in a parade scene of Leonid Yacobson's Spartacus, pointing and laughing at poor Phrygia, played by Maya Plisetskaya.
Inscriptions claiming that a benefactor was first in his community (primus omnium) to exhibit a certain number of gladiators or a certain species of animal are legion, (20) and a monument such as the gruesome series of panels at Hierapolis in Phrygia comprising the memorial (upovmnhma) of the troupe of gladiators, beasthunters, and bull-baiters belonging to Cn.
Although a touch too long at three hours, Grigorovich's epic has it all: testosterone-charged scenes of slavery, fighting and debauchery, passionate duets between Spartacus and his sweetheart Phrygia in which he lifts her aloft on one hand, awesome jumps and turning leaps, and theatrical "gimmicks" such as Spartacus' dramatic crucifixion in which he appears hoisted on spears and a wall of white feminine hands against a black backdrop.
As the poem opens Attis arrives on the coast of Phrygia in ecstasy.
Khachaturian's work may not be as well known except the romantic Adagio of Spartacus and Phrygia, popularised as the theme tune of the '70s Onedin Line.
Parthians, Medes, Elamites, and residents of Mesopotamia, Judea and Cappadocia, Pontus and Asia, Phrygia and Pamphylia, Egypt and the parts of Libya belonging to Cyrene, and visitors from Rome, both Jews and proselytes, Cretans and Arabs--in our own languages we hear them speaking about God's deeds of power." All were amazed and perplexed, saying to one another, "What does this mean?" But others sneered and said, "They are filled with new wine." (Acts 2: 1-13) Among the many miracles of Pentecost, the most important for our purposes is that it made possible the encounter of human beings with each other who, left to themselves, would not have entered into relationship.
For the comfort of long-distance travelers, Cyrus had organized a service of relays joining Lydia and Phrygia, through Cappadocia,Cilicia and Armenia (Herodotus 5, 52), and Imperial Rome saw a great increase in the number of travelers thanks to an efficient network of roads (Andre-Baslez 23, 33, 119-246).
(34) Martyrdom of Irenaeus 3.2 (domestici); Acts of Justin and Companions B 4.3; C 3.4 (Euelpistus was or had been an imperial slave; he was tried in Rome but originally came from Cappadocia and had Christian parents [B 4.7]; Hierax, one of his companions in death, was perhaps also a slave; he says that he had been 'dragged off from Iconium in Phrygia' [B 4.8], and may have been a victim of the slave trade); Letter of the Churches of Lyons and Vienne 1.18 (Blandina had a Christian mistress), 1.20 (Sanctus refuses to say whether he was a slave or a freedman); cf.
The haunting theme was an arrangement by Anthony Isaacs of the Adagio from Spartacus Phrygia by Aram Khatchaturian.