Phthisiology


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Phthisiology

 

a branch of medicine concerned with the causes, development, clinical and morphological manifestations, treatment, epidemiology, and prevention of tuberculosis. In the USSR phthisiology is an independent discipline that evolved from internal medicine. State medical and research establishments that also functioned as centers for the control of tuberculosis were founded as early as 1917. They developed into a network of tuberculosis clinics, sanatoriums, hospitals, and research institutes engaged in improving the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of various forms of tuberculosis and in elaborating the theoretical basis of phthisiology. There are several specialized fields, for example, phthisiochemistry, phthisiopediatrics, and phthisiourology.

Phthisiologists use a variety of diagnostic methods: clinical, roentgenographic, endoscopic, biochemical, bacteriological, and immunological. Traditional therapy included hygienic and dietary regimens, sanatorium treatment, induced pneumothorax, and symptomatic treatment. In the second half of the 20th century such treatment was supplemented by the use of antituberculous agents that act specifically on the causative agent of the disease. Along with surgery (chiefly pulmonary, bone-and-joint, and urogenital), antituberculous drugs have become the principal therapeutic agents. Advances in the prevention of tuberculosis have resulted from improved economic and hygienic conditions and from special prophylactic measures, for example, immunization with BCG vaccine and chemoprophylaxis.

In 1976 there were more than 23,000 phthisiologists in the USSR. Phthisiology is taught at medical institutes, institutes for advanced medical training, tuberculosis institutes, and major general hospitals. Specialists are trained during internship, residencies, or graduate study.

The All-Union Society of Phthisiologists was founded in 1947; it belongs to the International Union Against Tuberculosis, which itself was founded in 1920. The Bulletin of the International Union Against Tuberculosis has been published in Paris since 1924. International conferences have been held since 1888; the 21st conference was held in Moscow in 1971. The Soviet journal Problemy tuberkuleza has been published since 1923; there also are numerous clinical journals that discuss various aspects of phthisiology. Outside the USSR the subject is discussed in journals specializing in respiratory diseases.

F. V. SHEBANOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Major organization : STATE INSTITUTION REPUBLICAN SCIENTIFIC AND PRACTICAL CENTER FOR PULMONOLOGY AND PHTHISIOLOGY
Equipping of the TB division of the National Center for Phthisiology at the Ministry of Health for $1,245,200.
Earlier, Global Fund's grants directly went to the AIDS Center, Phthisiology Center, State Sanitary Epidemiological Control Department and were distributed among NGOs, However, since 2011, UNDP handles purchases and funds to ensure more effective use of donor aid.
The exhibition "Return home healthy!" is sponsored by Project HOPE, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the National Center for Phthisiology and the Initiative Group of Kyrgyz non-governmental organizations involved in fighting against the ongoing tuberculosis epidemic.
Worse still, he suffers from multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB), which is very difficult to treat.For three months now he has been at the National Centre of Phthisiology (NCP - for treatment of pulmonary diseases) in Bishkek.
Saudi Arabia will provide a grant to Kyrgyzstan for medical equipment of Family Medicine Centers of Tyup district of Issyk-Kul region, Kara-Kulja district of Osh region, Bishkek Phthisiology Department's TB drug resistant form unit.
The delegation of Kyrgyzstan included Stop TB Partnership members led by Director of National Phthisiology Center Abdulat Kadyrov.
One of the components is the equipping of the National Center of Phthisiology in Bishkek with the medical equipment.
According to Minister of Health Kosmosbek Cholponbayev, under the grant agreement, which was signed on April 3, 2018 in Tunis city, Saudi Arabia is ready to allocate $1,241,200 for medical equipment of the hospital of Tyup District of Issyk-Kul region, Kara-Kulja district of Osh region and funds for medical equipment of the department for treatment of patients with drug resistant tuberculosis at the Center of Phthisiology in Bishkek:
International experts are also attending the event, organized within the framework of scientific practical cooperation between the Ministry of Health, the Republican Specialized Scientific and Practical Medical Center of Phthisiology and Pulmonology and the U.S.
According to the Minister, $1.3 million grant is assigned for the purchase of special equipment for the National Phthisiology Center out of the total sum of the funds, $1.5 million - for National Research Institute for Heart Surgery and Transplantology under the Ministry of Health, and more than $1 million - for organization of the quarantine zone.
While Head of the Phthisiology Center Abdulaat Kadyrov at the Parliament meeting today said that a number of TB patients is decreasing in Kyrgyzstan.