The Pennsylvanian buildups from the Iberian Peninsula show different assemblages of reef-building organisms, including Donezella, Anthracoporella, Petschoria, phylloid algae and bryozoans.
Chaetetids, rugosans, Shallow, highly to crinoids, phylloid algae, moderate agitated water.
From this Psilophyton-like type were derived two lines of evolution--the lycopods, on the one hand, which retained their phylloids and dichotomous cauloids, and, on the other, all other vascular cryptogams, the pteridosperms, all gymnosperms and angiosperms.
In the simplest cases the phylloids became united by the development of parenchymatous tissues betwen them, thus forming a foliar appendage with open dichotomous venation.
Each ovule, in turn, was derived from three telomes, a central fertile one (megasporangium) and two lateral phylloids, which became modified into an integument, free from the sporangium except at the base.
Kelp consist of a more or less irregular, ramified basal disc (the holdfast) that is strongly fixed to the rock and produces one or more stipes of variable length, with one or many phylloids or "leaves" distributed along the stipe or at its top.
Winter growth occurs thanks to the translocation of stored reserves in the stipe and old phylloids during the previous summer.
The increase in length of the phylloids during the maximum growth period is between 0.
The photo shows one surfacing among the phylloids of Macrocystis in Monterey Bay, California.
Especially in the spring, filamentous algae, hydroids, and bryozoans are common on the fronds, or phylloids.