Phylloquinone


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Related to Phylloquinone: blood clotting, vitamin K

Phylloquinone

 

(also vitamin K1; chemical name, 2-methyl-3-phytyl-l,4-naphthoquinone), an oil-soluble vitamin. Phylloquinone was first isolated in 1939, by P. Karrer. The vitamin is a light yellow, viscous liquid that is capable of fluorescence and is insoluble in water. Its structural formula is

Phylloquinone is synthesized in the green parts of plants and by microorganisms. In humans and other mammals, it is formed by intestinal microflora. Phylloquinone figures in the biosynthesis of certain blood-coagulation factors, namely prothrombin and factors VII, IX, and X. Like other oil-soluble vitamins, phylloquinone is a constituent of the lipids that form part of biological membranes.

A deficiency of phylloquinone in humans and animals usually derives not from an insufficiency of the vitamin in the food but rather from a disruption of the vitamin’s absorption by the walls of the intestine. The disruption can result either from disorders of the gallbladder and liver (obstructive jaundice, cirrhosis of the liver) or from overdoses of medicines that suppress intestinal microflora. Phylloquinone deficiency leads to hemorrhages and hemorrhagic diathesis, interferes with the metabolism of high-energy compounds, and lowers the activity of many enzymes. Anticoagulants of the coumarin and indandione types inhibit the biosynthesis of phylloquinone.

Phylloquinone is effective in treating those suffering from K1, hypovitaminosis. Vicasol, an analogue of vitamin K1 is used as an antihemorrhagic. In industry, phylloquinone is synthesized from 2-methyl-l,4-naphthoquinone and either phytol or isophytol.

REFERENCES

Lakin, K. M. Lekarstvennaia reguliatsiia svertyvaniia krovi. Moscow, 1971.
Berezovskii, V. M. Khimiia vitaminov, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1973.
Matusis, I. I. Vitaminy i antivitaminy. Moscow, 1975.

R. P. EVSTIGNEEVA

References in periodicals archive ?
Comparative uptake, metabolism, and utilization of menaquinone-4 and phylloquinone in human cultured cell lines.
McCarthy et al., "Effect of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) supplementation for 12 months on the indices of vitamin K status and bone health in adult patients with Crohn's disease," The British Journal of Nutrition, vol.
Hassell, "Collard, mustard and turnip greens: Effects of genotypes and leaf position on concentrations of ascorbic acid, folate, [beta]-carotene, lutein and phylloquinone," Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol.
High phylloquinone intake (vitamin K1) does not seem associated with PAD risk."
These include the naturally occurring form phylloquinone (vitamin [K.sub.1]), menaquinones, and a synthetic form, menadione.
(56) Patients should maintain consistency in their diet and meet the recommended dietary allowance for vitamin K of 65 to 80 micrograms of phylloquinone per day.
35 Phylloquinone is one of the chemicals in which vitamin group?
Booth and colleagues examined dietary patterns of more than 40,000 men to determine whether phylloquinone, the form of vitamin K found in plant sources like leafy green vegetables, could serve as a marker for a reduced risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
The vitamin exists in two forms in nature: phylloquinone (K1), found in green vegetables, and menaquinone, ([K.sub.2]), produced by microbes in the lower digestive tract of animals, including pigs and humans.
Vitamin K comprises three main forms: vitamin K1 or phylloquinone which is found in green plants; vitamin K2 or the menaquinone family which is synthesised by bacteria in the large intes tine; and vitamin K3 or menadione which is a synthetic, water-soluble form that has been utilised in animal feeds.
People over the age of 65 consume more phylloquinone (the most common form of vitamin K) than 20-to-40 year olds.
Chapter titles: Fat and Nutrition; Oxidation Products and Metabolic Processes; Formation of Free Radicals and Protection Mechanisms in Vitro and in Vivo; Changes of Nutrients at Frying Temperatures; Enzymatic Methods far the Study of Thermally Oxidised Oils and Fats; Determination of Oxidation Compounds and Oligomers by Chromatographic Techniques; Nutrient Antioxidants and Stability of Frying Oils: Tocochromanols, [beta]-Carotene, Phylloquinone, Ubiquinone 50; Non-nutrient Antioxidants and Stability of Frying Oils; Phytosterols and Stability of Frying Oils; Palm Oil in Frying; Safety and Reliability During Frying Operations -- Effects of Detrimental Components and Fryer Design Features; Followed by a Subject Index.