Phylloxeridae


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Phylloxeridae

 

a family of insects of the order Homoptera, of the superfamily Aphidinea. The insects are small, measuring 0.5–7 mm in length. The barely mobile head has sucking mouth-parts that resemble a segmented proboscis. The antennae are short and consist of three or four segments. Winged forms have two pairs of wings with simple veining. The wings are folded flat when the insect is at rest. The coloration is brown or greenish, with a substratum under the color. The body is covered with short hairs. There is no anal orifice, and waste matter is not excreted. The insects have an incomplete cycle of development with alternating winged and wingless generations. Fertilized females lay one egg. Most species live on plants of a single species, while others live on plants of two species or have an incomplete development cycle. Members of the family are found on various species of oak, the family Salicacea, Brazil nut, pear, and grape.

The family embraces 12 genera, which include approximately 60 species, about 40 of which are found in North America. In the USSR there are nine species, from eight genera. Several species were introduced from America, including the harmful grape phylloxera (Viteus [Dactylosphaera] vitifolii, formerly Phylloxera vastatrix). Other members of the family include pests of pear (Phylloxerapiri) and oak (Phylloxera coceinea).

B. R. STRIGANOVA