Physical Culture


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Physical Culture

 

a system of physical exercises performed using various types of weights—barbells, dumbbells, block units, and other sports equipment—with the aim of developing the muscles of the human body. In the USA, Great Britain, Canada, Australia, and some other countries the term “body-building” has also been adopted.

Exercises with weights in order to develop the body’s strength and beauty were practiced in ancient Greece and Rome and in time spread to many countries. In Great Britain at the end of the 19th century, the German E. Sandow worked out the basic principles of modern physical culture. International body-building contests have been held since 1901, and since the mid-20th century there have been annual world championships in physical culture. In 1946 the International Federation of Physical Culture was organized, which in 1974 included about 80 national federations. The International Olympic Committee does not recognize physical culture as a sport or the contests between physical culturists as sports competitions. During the 1950’s professional physical culture became widespread in a number of countries. It emphasized muscle size and ignored the overall harmony of physical development and health (an excessive increase in muscle size results in deterioration of health, impairment of joint mobility, and loss of coordination).

In the USSR during the 1960’s physical culture sections (athleticism, calisthenics) were organized in a number of sports societies, but physical culture has not become widely popular.

References in classic literature ?
And they have physical culture exercises every morning and evening.
His photographs were in all the physical culture magazines.
Everybody down here seems to go in for physical culture.
Agravaine was a good deal better equipped than his contemporaries with grey matter, but his height in his socks was but five feet four; and his muscles, though he had taken three correspondence courses in physical culture, remained distressingly flaccid.
National boxing team of Kyrgyzstan will take part in an international tournament in Kazakhstan's Atyrau, the press service of the State Agency of Physical Culture and Sports told AKIpress.
cheap price, Karlen Harutyunyan, Head of the Republican Union of Professional Organizations of Workers of Physical Culture, Sport
Their topics include doing realist ethnography, narrative analysis in sport and physical culture, visual methods and body culture exhibition, critical feminist and queer methodologies, and situating personal sporting narratives in socio-cultural context.
Sam - who only had one arm - and his family lived at Cliffe in his younger days and he was a member of the Underbank Wesleyan (Methodist church) Physical Culture Club.
The equation of manliness with muscles in the pages of magazines such a Bernard Macfadden's Physical Culture and True Stories was a far cry from the Victorian system of character, for now superficial physical considerations were substituted for moral ones in the definition of what constituted an attractive man.
The visiting session of the Expert Council for Physical Culture and Sports under the Council of Federation Committee on Social Policy was held in Ulan-Ude.
Two Kyrgyz sportsmen will participate in 2018 Winter Olympics in Korea, Director of the State Agency for Youth, Physical Culture and Sports Kanat Amankulov said on January 10.
A team of Kyrgyzstan won the 2nd place at the World Toguz Korgool Cup in Almaty (Kazakhstan) which was held on April 13-17, the press service of the State Agency of Physical Culture and Sports said.