Physical Culture

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Physical Culture


a system of physical exercises performed using various types of weights—barbells, dumbbells, block units, and other sports equipment—with the aim of developing the muscles of the human body. In the USA, Great Britain, Canada, Australia, and some other countries the term “body-building” has also been adopted.

Exercises with weights in order to develop the body’s strength and beauty were practiced in ancient Greece and Rome and in time spread to many countries. In Great Britain at the end of the 19th century, the German E. Sandow worked out the basic principles of modern physical culture. International body-building contests have been held since 1901, and since the mid-20th century there have been annual world championships in physical culture. In 1946 the International Federation of Physical Culture was organized, which in 1974 included about 80 national federations. The International Olympic Committee does not recognize physical culture as a sport or the contests between physical culturists as sports competitions. During the 1950’s professional physical culture became widespread in a number of countries. It emphasized muscle size and ignored the overall harmony of physical development and health (an excessive increase in muscle size results in deterioration of health, impairment of joint mobility, and loss of coordination).

In the USSR during the 1960’s physical culture sections (athleticism, calisthenics) were organized in a number of sports societies, but physical culture has not become widely popular.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in classic literature ?
And they have physical culture exercises every morning and evening.
His photographs were in all the physical culture magazines.
Everybody down here seems to go in for physical culture."
Agravaine was a good deal better equipped than his contemporaries with grey matter, but his height in his socks was but five feet four; and his muscles, though he had taken three correspondence courses in physical culture, remained distressingly flaccid.
Department of Physical Culture, Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russian Federation
Thus we have prepared amendments to the law on physical culture and sports on providing with scholarships even for those athletes who are engaged in non-Olympic sports, but included in the Asian Games," he added.
On the other hand, Fneish met with a delegation from the "Arab Union for Physical Culture" who briefed the Minister on the Union's activities and its 2017 programs, in addition to preparations for the 2017 "Physical Culture" conference, to be taking place upcoming July at the UNESCO Palace.
One might also not expect a book on sports and physical culture focused on a country with such a poor record of international success--no Olympic medal so far--as Laos.
The efficiency of the means related to physical culture and sports in the prevention activity on caring and strengthening health is exclusively high in the fight against drug addiction, alcoholism and delinquency, especially in the teenagers' environment [1,2,6,7].
Their trophy-winning qualities were acknowledged when a photograph of the team and their close supporters featured on the front cover of a national physical culture magazine.
World Cup of the Central Asian Equestrian League took place in Bishkek on 22-24 May on the basis of the Children's and Youth Sports School of Olympic Reserve, the press service of the State Agency for Physical Culture and Sports told AKIpress.
Exceed Physical Culture, Manhattan's largest boutique functional fitness gym, recently signed a lease at 97 Reade Street.

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