Physical Culture


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Physical Culture

 

a system of physical exercises performed using various types of weights—barbells, dumbbells, block units, and other sports equipment—with the aim of developing the muscles of the human body. In the USA, Great Britain, Canada, Australia, and some other countries the term “body-building” has also been adopted.

Exercises with weights in order to develop the body’s strength and beauty were practiced in ancient Greece and Rome and in time spread to many countries. In Great Britain at the end of the 19th century, the German E. Sandow worked out the basic principles of modern physical culture. International body-building contests have been held since 1901, and since the mid-20th century there have been annual world championships in physical culture. In 1946 the International Federation of Physical Culture was organized, which in 1974 included about 80 national federations. The International Olympic Committee does not recognize physical culture as a sport or the contests between physical culturists as sports competitions. During the 1950’s professional physical culture became widespread in a number of countries. It emphasized muscle size and ignored the overall harmony of physical development and health (an excessive increase in muscle size results in deterioration of health, impairment of joint mobility, and loss of coordination).

In the USSR during the 1960’s physical culture sections (athleticism, calisthenics) were organized in a number of sports societies, but physical culture has not become widely popular.

References in classic literature ?
And they have physical culture exercises every morning and evening.
Everybody down here seems to go in for physical culture.
Agravaine was a good deal better equipped than his contemporaries with grey matter, but his height in his socks was but five feet four; and his muscles, though he had taken three correspondence courses in physical culture, remained distressingly flaccid.
Great Britain spent upon army and navy money and capacity, that directed into the channels of physical culture and education would have made the British the aristocracy of the world.
Their trophy-winning qualities were acknowledged when a photograph of the team and their close supporters featured on the front cover of a national physical culture magazine.
All works are performed by the State Agency of Physical Culture and Sports with the support of the Department for Sports Facilities under the mayor's office and the Football Federation of Kyrgyzstan.
One of the great strengths of Sporting Gender is found in the author's efforts to redefine the concept of tiyu or the physical culture in accordance with the social context of 1930s China.
Exceed Physical Culture, Manhattan's largest boutique functional fitness gym, recently signed a lease at 97 Reade Street.
Highlights include archival images of the earliest African-American basketball teams, including the Alpha Physical Culture Club, the nation's first all-black athletic club (1912); the New York Girls, the first all-black female team (1910); and team photos of the New York Renaissance (also known as the "Harlem Rens"), Smart Set Athletic Club, Harlem Globetrotters, and the Washington Bears.
He also served as chairman of the State Physical Culture and Sports Guidance Commission, which oversees many of Kim Jong Un's pet projects.
Tom became interested in physical culture after hopes of a career with the Boro were shattered when he tore a ligament in a motorcycle accident.
At home he is based in the School of Physical Culture in the Curragh, Co Kildare.