Physical Culture, Institute of

Physical Culture, Institute of

 

(full name, State Central Institute of Physical Culture), one of the largest pedagogical institutes of physical culture and sports in the USSR. The Institute of Physical Culture and Sports was first established in 1918, in Moscow. V. M. Bonch-Bruevich, A. V. Lunacharskii, N. A.

Table 1. Recommended adjusted values of physical constants
QuantitySymbolValue (and mean-square error)1Mean-square error (10–4%)
1The values of the physical constants are given in units of the International System of Units (SI units). The number in parentheses after a numerical value indicates the mean-square error—that is, the standard deviation uncertainty—in the last digits of the quoted value.
Speed of light in vacuum ...............c299,792,458 (1.2) m sec–10.004
Fine structure constant ...............α0.0072973506 (60)0.82
 α–1137.03604(11)0.82
Elementary charge ...............e1.6021892(46) × 10–19C2.9
Planck’s constant ...............h6.626176(36) × –34J.Sec5.4
 ℏ = h/2π1.0545887(57) × 10–34J-sec5.4
Avogadro’s number ...............NA6.022045(31) × 1023mol–15.1
Electron rest mass ...............me0.9109534(47) × 10–30kg5.1
  5.4858026(21) × 10–4amu0.38
Electron charge to mass ratio ...............e/me1.7588047(49) × 1011C kg–12.8
Muon rest mass ...............mμ1.883566(11) × 10–28 kg5.6
  0.11342920 (26) amu2.3
Proton rest mass ...............mp1.6726485(86) × 10–27kg5.1
  1.007276470 (11) amu0.011
Neutron rest mass ...............mn1.6749543(86) × 10–27kg5.1
  1.008665012 (37) amu0.037
Faraday constant ...............F = NAe9.648456(27) × 104C mol–12.8
Magnetic flux quantum ...............ɸ0 = ℏ/2e2.0678506(54) × 10–15 Wb2.6
Rydberg constant ...............R1.097373177(83) × 107m–10.075
Bohr radius ...............a0 = α/4πR0.52917706(44) × 10–10 m0.82
Compton wavelength of the electron ...............λc = α2/2R2.4263089(40) × 10–12 m1.6
 λc/2π = α a03.8615905(64) × 10–13 m1.6
Nuclear magneton ...............μN = eℏ/2mp5.050824(20) × 10–27JT–13.9
Bohr magneton ...............μB = eℏ/2me9.274078(36) × 10–24JT–13.9
Electron magnetic moment in Bohr magnetons ...............μeB1.0011596567(35)0.0035
Protron magnetic moment in nuclear magnetons ...............μpN2.7928456(11)0.38
Electron magnetic moment ...............μe9.284832(36) × 10–24 JT–13.9
Protron magnetic moment ...............μp1.406171 (55) × 10–26 JT–13.9
Protron magnetic moment in Bohr magnetons ...............μpB1.521032209(16) × 10–30.011
Gyromagnetic ratio of the proton ...............γp2.6751987(75) × 108sec–1. T–12.8
Gas constant ...............R8.31441 (26) J mol–1.°K–131
Boltzmann constant ...............k = R/NA1.380662(44) × 10–23 j °K–132
Stefan-Boltzmann constant ...............σ – (π2/60)k4/ℏ3c25.67032(71) × 10–8 Wm–2.°K–4125
Gravitational constant ...............G6.6720(41) × 10–11 N-m2 kg–2615

Semashko, and N. I. Podvoiskii were instrumental in its organization. Scientific schools within the institute were founded by the professors V. V. Gorinevskii, M. F. Ivanitskii, I. M. Sarkizov-Serazini, A. D. Novikov, and P. A. Rudik.

In 1977 the institute comprised departments of amateur sports, athletic games, winter sports, technical sports, sports of single combat, and advanced training. It also had a correspondence department, a higher school for coaches, a school of advanced sports training, a graduate department, 33 subdepartments, two specialized laboratories, and a central laboratory for testing technical facilities of instruction. The library contains approximately 300,000 volumes. The institute has educational and advisory centers in Saratov and Rostov-on-Don. In the 1970’s a new complex of buildings was constructed. The institute has a field house and 16 gymnasiums.

In the 1976–77 academic year there were 5,000 students enrolled at the institute. The teaching staff numbered approximately 400, including 27 professors and doctors of sciences and more than 200 docents and candidates of sciences. The faculty also included 57 Honored Masters of Sport and Honored Coaches of the USSR and of Union republics and more than 100 Masters of Sport. Outstanding teachers include D. D. Donskoi, K. V. Gradopolov, V. L. Karpman, L. P. Matveev, N. G. Ozolin, P. A. Rudik, and V. M. Zatsiorskii.

The institute is authorized to confer the degrees of candidate and doctor. It has trained more than 23,000 specialists since its founding. Students of the institute have included the Honored Masters of Sport of the USSR and Honored Coaches of the USSR I. la. Anikanov, K. I. Beskov, V. M. D’iachkov, A. Z. Katulin, K. K. Kudriavtsev, D. P. Markov, Z. G. Romanova, A. V. Tarasov, and A. A. Ter-Ovanesian. Olympic champions who studied at the institute include E. R. Grishin, V. P. Kuts, B. N. Lagutin, K. B. Loktev, N. P. Simonian, G. N. Urbanovich, A. G. Zaitsev, and I. K. Rodnina.

The institute was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1934.

V. I. MASLOV

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