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The prediction of personality functioning from facial appearances and expression.



in the science of antiquity and of certain later periods, the study of the direct connection between the outward appearance and character of a person or an animal.

Physiognomy is rooted in the ancient practice of incorporating experience of life into folklore and the lore of sorcerers, fortune tellers, and the like. Physiognomic observations became part of the cultures of the ancient East; in the classical era they were systematized in the same way as other scientific disciplines of the time. Proportions of the face and body, characteristic gestures and facial expressions, and types of posture, build, and carriage of the body were described and classified.

In antiquity physiognomy was associated with the theory of temperaments and with Hippocrates’ theory of the dependence of an individual’s or a people’s physical and mental makeup on climate. Physiognomy was also related to the system of moral types (“characters”) worked out by Theophrastus and other students of Aristotle and to the use of types in classical literature, as exemplified by the character masks in New Comedy and the techniques of verbal portraiture in classical rhetoric, historiography, and biography.

Physiognomy was based on the notion prevalent in antiquity that the actions and behavior of every person are rigidly determined by his inborn character. According to Heraclitus, a person’s character was his “demon,” that is, his fate; similar statements were made by Epicharmus, Democritus, and Plato. It was believed that every person’s association with a moral type was just as clear and obvious, just as tangible and biological, as his physical features.

The classical tradition of physiognomy was reflected in the culture of Byzantium and of medieval Western Europe; it had a particularly strong influence on Arab science and on the cabala of Jewish mysticism. Some Western European scientists, for example, G. della Porta in De humana physiognomonia (1586), resumed the study of physiognomy between the 16th and 18th centuries. However, the establishment of new scientific criteria in the 17th and 18th centuries relegated physiognomy to the realms of common sense and artistic intuition. In his Physiognomical Fragments (1775–78), J. K. Lavater failed in an attempt to restore physiognomy to the status of a science. Similar attempts by such epigones of German romanticism as R. Kassner and L. Klages also failed to achieve acceptance. Klages’ graphology and characterology may be mentioned in this connection.


Scriptores physiognomonici graeci et latini, vols. 1–2. Edited by R. Foerster. Leipzig, 1893.
Evans, E. C. Physiognomies in the Ancient World. Philadelphia, 1969.


References in periodicals archive ?
Yet Montaigne does seem to offer us some guidance as to how to interpret "Of physiognomy.
But a stylistic chameleon like Schrauwen resists this expressionist Rorschach test himself; rather, his restless experimentation with different visual approaches, married to his thematic concerns, implies a deeper investigation into the physiognomy of style.
I propose that Fanny's interaction with the profile of Edmund would have brought to mind a particular connection between the profile portrait form and the recognition of "true character" in the study of physiognomy.
Physiognomy sometimes claimed to predict the future: this is what will happen to a man with this face.
His book unites the grim determinism of physiognomy (it is not the beady eyes of Criminal Man we must fear, but the malformed brain of The Psychopath) with the cheerful optimism of phrenology (yes, but most of them aren't really evil).
If they did come back to Earth, they would not be able to adjust to the higher gravity because of a change in their physiognomy, including a reduction in bone density, muscle strength and circulatory system capacity.
Duncan's negative construal of physiognomy in Macbeth, "There's no art / To find the mind's construction in the face" (1.
A MONG the many tales of wisdom in Indian folklore is the story of a group of wise men in the kingdom of the blind trying to figure out what an elephant looked like with each touching a different part of the animal to arrive at his own conclusion about its physiognomy.
2) Johann Kaspar Lavater (1741-1801), promoter of physiognomy, the study of the character based on facial features, considered silhouettes as poor but accurate representations, reduced to their simplest expression, albeit objectively true.
England's captain Keith Veryard, sporting a physiognomy that would make even Sam Weller blush, was as immodest in his victory speech as a modern-day Fagin with a pocket full of contents of other folk's pockets.
He initiated a major socio-religious revolution that had vast consequences for his country, and possessed a strikingly abnormal physiognomy that was of note in his time and has interested historians up to the present era.
Joseph Ziegler examines physiognomy texts from the Middle Ages in his essay, "Physiognomy, science, and proto-racism 1200-1500.