Physostigmine


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physostigmine

[‚fī·sə′stig·mēn]
(organic chemistry)
C15H21O2N3 An alkaloid; poisonous, colorless-to-pinkish crystals; soluble in alcohol and dilute acids; melts at 86°C; used as a source of salicylate and sulfate forms. Also known as calabarine; eserine.

Physostigmine

 

(also eserine), C15H21O2N3, the chief alkaloid of Calabar beans, which are the seeds of the tropical African woody vine Physostigma venenosum. Physostigmine was discovered in 1864 by the German chemists Jobst and Hesse; the first synthesis of the alkaloid was carried out in 1935 by the American chemists P. Julian and J. Pikl. A weak base, the alkaloid yields salts that readily crystallize. It is soluble in alcohol, ether, and chloroform. The structural formula is

Physostigmine is highly poisonous. It is used in medicine, where it is classified as a reversible anticholinesterase. When administered medically, physostigmine blocks the enzyme cholinesterase, thereby protecting acetylcholine from a rapid hydrolytic breakdown. Physostigmine thus induces effects in the organism that are outwardly similar to those induced by acetylcholine and cholinomimetic agents (contraction of the pupils, slowed heartbeat, intensification of uterine contractions and of peristalsis in the stomach and intestine).

The protection of acetylcholine effected by physostigmine has made possible the discovery that acetylcholine is given off at the endings of the parasympathetic nerves and that nerve impulses are transmitted chemically. Physostigmine salicylate is used medically as an anticholinesterase. It is used mainly in ophthalmology, where in drop form it serves to contract the pupils and to reduce the intraocular pressure arising from glaucoma; in ointment form, it is effective against keratitis. Hypodermic injections of physostigmine are sometimes prescribed for neuromuscular diseases (myasthenia), enteroparesis, and paresis of the urinary bladder. Physostigmine is an antidote for atropine and curarine. Synthetic substitutes for physostigmine, for example, neostigmine, are available.

V. V. PARIN

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5 times higher than physostigmine and galanthamine respectively, while the [IC.
Timing and frequency of physostigmine redosing for antimuscarinic toxicity.
Physostigmine enhances the activity of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine.
The drug physostigmine is being studied as a treatment for memory problems because it slows down the body's natural breakdown of acetylcholine, resulting in higher levels of this substance.
13) Physostigmine use is limited to the most serious cases due to the risks of cholinergic excess that can occur with the drug.
Effects of huperzine A on acetylcholinesterase isoforms in vitro: comparison with tacrine, donepezil, rivastigmine and physostigmine.
Open channel block by physostigmine and procaine in embryonic-like nicotinic receptors of mouse muscle.
In the study, 21 chronically ill Gulf War veterans and 17 healthy veterans were given small doses of physostigmine, a substance that briefly stimulates cholinergic receptors.
The active drug, physostigmine, a cholinesterase inhibitor, targets the minor salivary glands with a direct local action, inducing a more lubricating saliva.
Recently, coronaridine (29) has also been shown to have a significant AChE inhibitory activity, at the same concentration, of the physostigmine and galantamine (ACHE inhibitors) in an in vitro study (79).
RESULTS: In undifferentiated cells, all the agents inhibited DNA synthesis, with the greatest effect for diazinon, but physostigmine eventually produced the largest deficits in the total number of cells after prolonged exposure.