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a variety of pianoforte in which the strings, soundboard, and action are arranged vertically.
The first models were invented by the American J. I. Hawkins (December 1800) and the Austrian M. Miiller (January 1801). After a number of improvements in the mid-19th century, the pianino acquired its modern form (iron frame, overstrung scaling, action with underdampers and overdampers, and a compass of seven octaves). The most popular pianinos—the “cabinet” pianos—are 1,450-1,500 mm wide at the keyboard and approximately 1,250-1,400 mm long.