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the art of piano playing.
Pianism emerged in the second half of the 18th century, with the artistry of Mozart and M. Clementi and later, J. N. Hummel and J. Field. The art flourished in the mid-19th century (Chopin and Liszt). The representatives of the various schools of pianism from the end of the 19th century to the mid-20th include H. von Bülow, C. Tausig, I. Paderewski, A. Reisenauer, E. d’Albert, F. Busoni, L. Godowsky, J. Hofmann, A. Cortot, A. Schnabel, W. Gieseking, V. Horowitz, A. Benedetti Michelangeli, and G. Gould. In the post-Lisztian period, outstanding contributions to pianism have been made by the Russian school (A. G. Rubinstein, N. G. Rubinstein, A. N. Esipova, and S. V. Rachmaninoff), as well as by the Soviet school (for example, K. N. Igumnov, G. G. Neigauz, M. V. Iudina, V. V. Sofronitskii, E. G. Gilel’s, and S. T. Rikhter). Special courses on the history, theory, and methodology of pianism are offered in Soviet conservatories.
REFERENCESKogan, G. Sovetskoe pianisticheskoe iskusstvo i russkie khudozhestvennye traditsii. Moscow, 1948. (References.)
Alekseev, A. Istoriia fortepiannogo iskusstva, parts 1-2. Moscow, 1962–67.
Schonberg, H. The Great Pianists. New York, 1963.
G. M. KOGAN