Pianyi Bor Culture
P’ianyi Bor Culture
an archaeological culture of the early Iron Age that existed in the Kama River region. The culture was named after a burial ground near the village of P’ianyi Bor (now Krasnyi Bor, Elabuga Raion, Tatar ASSR). Scholarly opinions regarding the culture differ. Some scholars believe the culture was widespread throughout the entire Kama River basin from the second century B.C. until the fifth century A.D. According to others, it existed only in the lower Kama River region from the second century B.C until the third century A.D. or only at the mouth of the Belaia River from the second century B.C.
The tribes of the P’ianyi Bor culture were Finno-Ugrians. They engaged in hunting, stock raising, and hoe cultivation. Their settlements of patriarchal communities were situated on elevated sites. Men were buried with weapons and tools; women, with ornaments. Characteristic objects were epaulet-like belt clasps, iron swords and shields, and women’s ornaments, including richly decorated headpieces for braids, hung with strung beads and pendants resembling stylized horse figurines. Roman and Middle Asian objects were also found among the remains.
REFERENCESSmirnov, A. P. Ocherki drevnei i srednevekovoi istorii narodov Srednego Povolzh’ia i Prikam’ia. Moscow, 1952. (Materialy i issledovaniia po arkheologii SSSR, no. 28.)
Gening, V. F. “Uzlovye problemy izucheniia p’ianoborskoi kul’tury.” Voprosy arkheologii Urala, 1962, issue 4.
A. P. SMIRNOV