Piast

Piast

Piast (pyäst), 1st dynasty of Polish dukes and kings. Its name was derived from that of its legendary ancestor, a simple peasant. The first historic member, Duke Mieszko I (reigned 962–92), began the unification of Poland and introduced Christianity. His son, Boleslaus I, was crowned king in 1025 with papal approval. However, some of his successors did not claim the royal crown. His successors were Mieszko II (reigned 1025–34), Casimir I (reigned c.1040–1058), Boleslaus II (reigned 1058–79), Ladislaus Herman (reigned 1079–1102), and Boleslaus III (reigned 1102–38). For his four sons Boleslaus III created four hereditary duchies—Silesia, Mazovia, Great Poland (with Gniezno and Poznan), and Sandomierz. In addition, the royal throne at Kraków and the rest of the Polish territory was to be held by the oldest member of the dynasty; thus the supreme power would pass in rotation to the different branches. This law of succession caused the temporary disintegration of the kingdom. However, Casimir II (who, probably a posthumous child, was left out of Boleslaus's will) united Mazovia and Sandomierz under his power, was made duke at Kraków in 1177, and secured (1180) for his descendants the hereditary right to the kingship. Nevertheless, dynastic struggles resumed after Casimir's death (1194) and continued until Ladislaus I restored the royal authority in 1320. With the death (1370) of his son, Casimir III, the Piast dynasty ended in Poland; it was finally succeeded by the Jagiello dynasty. Another branch of the Piasts ruled as dukes of Mazovia until 1526. In 1339, Casimir III had officially recognized John of Luxemburg, king of Bohemia, as suzerain over the Piast domains in Silesia, which in the meantime had broken up into many principalities. The Silesian Piasts, as vassals of Bohemia and mediate princes of the Holy Roman Empire, retained the ducal title and continued to hold the duchy of Oppeln until 1532 and the principalities of Brieg, Liegnitz, and Wohlau until their extinction in 1675.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Piast

 

(full name Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe “Piast,” Piast Polish Peasant Party), a Polish political party that existed from 1913 to 1931. It was founded in Galicia by leaders of the right wing of the peasant movement.

The party took its name from the newspaper it published. The newspaper called for cooperation among the various social groups, a situation that had supposedly existed under the rule of the Piasts, the first Polish dynasty. In 1918, after the formation of the bourgeois-landowner Polish state, the party was active throughout Poland. It defended the interests of the prosperous peasants and was nationalistic and anti-Soviet. In 1931 it merged with the Peasant Party (Stronnictwo Ludowe), whose leaders included W. Witos and S. Mikołajczyk.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
RIGA, Aug 2 (LETA) - Three Polish football fans were detained for hooliganism after Thursday's match between Riga FC and Poland's champions Gliwice Piast, LETA was told at the Riga Municipal Police.
TOM HATELEY helped shock troops Piast Gliwice to the Polish title - then insisted he would love a Champions League crack at Celtic.
Les proteges de Djamel Menad livreront un dernier test amical face au GKS Piast Gliwice (D1), en cloture de leur stage polonais.
Or how about pampering yourself with some Polish luxury in Krakow, staying at the five-star Crown Piast Hotel where a three-night B&B break with easyJet Holidays costs from [euro]192pp.
Other topics include the Europeanization of Scandinavia, the Piast ruler and the economy of medieval Poland, the evils in the court: judicial melodrama in medieval French literature, historical writing and the experience of Europeanization: the view from St.
von Guttner-Sporzynski, Darius, Poland, Holy War, and the Piast Monarchy, 1100-1230 (Europa Sacra, 14), Turnhout, Brepols, 2014; hardback; pp.
The ex-Poland Under-21 international, 27, scored 20 goals in 35 games for top-flight side Piast Gliwice to grab the Golden Boot as well as the Player of the Year gong.
Their performances have tailed off in recent weeks with Kamil Kieres's side drawing 1-1 at Podbeskidzie and 0-0 at home to Piast Gliwice.
From 2:30 to 3 p.m, there will be a traditional dance performance by children from the Polish-American Dance Company PIAST.
In this fine translation (by Paul Barford, from the Polish original of 2002) the impact and influence of the crusades in eastern Europe, specifically in the Polish kingdom of the Piast dynasty, is explored in full.
The book's strictly scholarly argument is enlivened by such digressions as "Who built ancient Wroclaw?" and "The first Benedictine abbeys." A reader of this book cannot fail to realize that Poland was a remarkably nonaggressive nation throughout its history, and that ancestors of contemporary Poles settled in, and did not move from, the areas that are commonly known as "Piast Poland." Unlike Eastern Slavs, the Central European Slavs were not bent on expanding their territory.
William descends from Poland's original Piast dynasty and from the Jagiellons up to King Zygmunt I (d.