a city under the jurisdiction of Stavropol’ Krai, RSFSR; a balneological and mud-bath resort, part of the Caucasian Mineral Waters group. Located on the Podkumok River (a tributary of the Kuma) and the slopes of Mount Mashuk. Railroad station on the Mineral’nye Vody-Kislovodsk branch, 25 km from Mineral’nye Vody. Population, 100,000 (1974; 18,000 in 1897; 48,000 in 1926; 70,000 in 1959). Summers are warm, with an average July temperature of 22°C, and winters are mild, with an average January temperature of — 4°C. Annual precipitation totals 475 mm.
Therapeutic agents include the mud from Lake Tambukan and mineral waters, both used for baths. The mineral waters have the following composition:
(from the Lermontov Spring No. 1) and
(from the Warm Sulfur Spring No. 1).
Waters that are exclusively for drinking have the following composition:
(from Spring No. 14) and
(from the Warm Narzan Spring).
Persons suffering from disorders of the musculoskeletal system and diseases of the cardiovascular system and the central and peripheral nervous systems are treated in Piatigorsk, as well as persons with skin diseases, gynecological disorders, and diseases of the digestive organs. The city has sanatoriums, balneological and mud-bath facilities, facilities for radon baths, drinking pump rooms, and vacation hotels.
The local industries chiefly provide for the needs of the health resort. Food-processing enterprises include meat and wine combines, a dairy, a brewery, and a confectionery. Light industry is represented by clothing, footwear, and rug enterprises. There are electromechanical and machine-repair factories and enterprises that manufacture agricultural equipment and building materials.
Piatigorsk has a pedagogical institute of foreign languages and a pharmaceutical institute. The evening department of general engineering of the Northern Caucasus Mining and Metallurgical Institute is located in the city, as is the department of the technology and organization of public catering of the Stavropol’ Polytechnic Institute. There are also agricultural and Soviet-trade technicums and a medical school.
Architectural landmarks in Piatigorsk include the old restaurant-pavilion (now an administration building; rebuilt 1825), the Lermontov Baths (formerly the Alexander, then the Nicholas, Baths, 1826–31), the Aeolian Harp summerhouse (1828), and Diana’s Grotto (1830–31); all were designed by G. Bernardazzi and I. Bernardazzi in the classical style.
After the October Revolution of 1917, Piatigorsk was rebuilt; new public buildings, sanatoriums, and balneological facilities were erected. Construction of new housing developments is under way.
Monuments include a huge cliff portrait of V. I. Lenin on Mount Mashuk (1925, artist N. Shchuklin), a monument to M. Iu. Lermontov in the city square (bronze and granite, unveiled 1889, sculptor A. M. Opekushin), the sculpture The Eagle (bronze, 1903; stone, sculptor L. K. Shotskikh), and a monument to S. M. Kirov (bronze and granite, 1959; sculptor A. S. Kondrat’ev, architect A. V. Sotnikov).
Piatigorsk also has a museum of local lore and the M. Iu. Lermontov Museum. Lermontov spent the last months of his life in Piatigorsk; he was killed in a duel at the foot of Mount Mashuk in 1841.
REFERENCESDoktorskii, Ia. R. Kavkazskie Mineral’nye Vody. [Stavropol’, 1969.]
Nedumov, S. I. Lermontovksii Piatigorsk. [Stavropol’, 1974.]