Picornaviruses


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Related to Picornaviruses: orthomyxoviruses, rhabdoviruses

Picornaviruses

 

(from Spanish pico, “small quantity,” and RNA, abbreviation for ribonucleic acid), a group of viruses that lack an envelope and contain a single strand of RNA. Picornaviruses replicate in the cytoplasm of bacterial, plant, animal, and human cells. They are the smallest known viruses, reaching a maximum diameter of about 30 nanometers. The most studied picornaviruses are the enteroviruses, which inhabit human and animal intestines. Many picornaviruses, for example, the polio-virus, can attack the central nervous system. Picornaviruses also include the virus that causes foot-and-mouth disease, murine encephalitis virus, rhinoviruses (which cause inflammation of the upper respiratory tract in man and animals), yellow turnip mosaic virus, and bacteriophage f2.

REFERENCES

Andrewes, C. Estestvennaia istoriia virusov. Moscow, 1969. (Translated from English.)
Wildy, P. Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses. Basel, 1971.
References in periodicals archive ?
While it is possible that the newly-discovered pocket may also mutate to make picornaviruses resistant to therapies developed against them, the authors suggest the pocket may be crucial enough for viral replication that viruses containing mutant versions may be less viable, making the drug relatively "resistance-proof."
Phylogenetic relation of ovine picornavirus to other picornaviruses of the genera Sapelovirus, Rabovirus, and Enterovirus, as well as unclassified picornaviruses.
Virus genomes are mentioned by short names and GenBank IDs and are colored black (coronaviruses), blue (flaviviruses), green (picornaviruses), and red (HIVs).
Since multiple infections are frequently detected in respiratory samples of patients with respiratory symptoms and to better clarify the pathogenetic role of picornaviruses in coinfections, all specimens positive for HRVs or HEV 109, were also assayed for the presence of other thirteen respiratory viruses, including parainfluenza viruses (PIV 1-3), influenza A and B viruses, human metapneumovirus (hMPV), human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), and adenoviruses, using a multiplex PCR strategy (Seeplex RV12 ACE Detection, Seegene, Rockville).
The UCI and Dutch researchers examined one group of RNA viruses, called picornaviruses, using biochemical purification methods and confocal microscopy to see how they co-opt the functions of a cellular DNA repair enzyme called TDP2 to advance their replication process.
They found a novel virus which was ultimately found to be most closely related to--but distinct from--all known picornaviruses. Their findings indicated that infection of cats with this virus was quite common.
There are nine genera of picornaviruses: Enterovirus (poliovirus, swine vesicular disease, coxsackievirus (which causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease in humans), and enterovirus A), Rhinovirus (human and bovine rhinoviruses), Hepatovirus (hepatitis A virus), Aphthovirus (foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle), Cardiovirus (encephalomyocarditis virus in mice), Erbovirus (equine rhinitis B virus), Kobuvirus (Aichi kobuvirus), Teschovirus (porcine teschovirus), and Parechovirus (human parechovirus, which was formerly known as Echovirus 22 and 23).
MxA-sensitive viruses include members of the bunyaviruses, orthomyxoviruses, paramyxoviruses, rhabdoviruses, togaviruses, picornaviruses, and hepatitis B virus, a DNA virus with a genomic RNA intermediate (Haller et al., 1998; Landis et al., 1998; Chieux et al., 2001; Gordien et al., 2001).
The most common of these (41% of cases) were picornaviruses, which belong to the family Picornaviridae.
The viruses belong to a large group called picornaviruses.
The viruses involved belong to a large family called picornaviruses. They include rhinoviruses, which are associated with the common cold, and enteroviruses, which cause stomach upsets.
laboratories during 1993-2003 that referred to 1) polioviruses of any origin; 2) enteric diseases in countries where polio is endemic; or 3) viruses that share common enteric origins, replicate on poliovirus-permissive systems, or both (e.g., picornaviruses, rhinoviruses, and rotaviruses).