pidgin

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pidgin

(pĭj`ən), a lingua francalingua franca
, an auxiliary language, generally of a hybrid and partially developed nature, that is employed over an extensive area by people speaking different and mutually unintelligible tongues in order to communicate with one another.
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 that is not the mother tongue of anyone using it and that has a simplified grammar and a restricted, often polyglot vocabulary. The earliest documented pidgin is the Lingua Franca (or Sabir) that developed among merchants and traders in the Mediterranean in the Middle Ages; it remained in use through the 19th cent. Other known pidgins have been employed in different regions since the 17th cent. An example is the variety of pidgin English that resulted from contacts between English traders and the Chinese in Chinese ports. In fact, the word pidgin supposedly is a Chinese (Cantonese) corruption of the English word business. Another well-known form of pidgin English is the Beach-la-Mar (or Bêche-de-Mer) of the South Seas. The different kinds of pidgin English have preserved the basic grammatical features of English, at the same time incorporating a number of non-English syntactical characteristics. The great majority of words in pidgin English are of English origin, but there are also Malay, Chinese, and Portuguese elements. As a result of European settlers bringing to the Caribbean area large numbers of slaves from West Africa who spoke different languages, other pidgins evolved in that region that were based on English, Portuguese, Dutch, French, and Spanish. Examples of pidgins based on non-European languages are Chinook, once used by Native Americans in the Pacific Northwest, and Lingua Gêral, based on a Native American language and used in Brazil. The Krio language of Sierra Leone and Tok Pisin of Papua New Guinea are examples of creoles, pidgins that have acquired native speakers. See also creole languagecreole language
, any language that began as a pidgin but was later adopted as the mother tongue by a people in place of the original mother tongue or tongues. Examples are the Gullah of South Carolina and Georgia (based on English), the creole of Haiti (based on French), and
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.

Bibliography

See D. Hymes, ed., Pidginization and Creolization of Languages (1971); J. Holm, Pidgins and Creoles (2 vol., 1988–89) and An Introduction to Pidgins and Creoles (2000); S. Romaine, Pidgin and Creole Languages (1988).

References in periodicals archive ?
However, a stress on Pidgin poetry in this study does not mean that it is only in poetry that the Pidgin language has been utilized.
5-19), provides first a definition of the term "pidgin" and then gives a brief account of all the English-based pidgin languages spoken in the Pacific today, namely, Bislama (the national language of Vanuatu), Solomon Islands Pijin, Tok Pisin (spoken in Papua New Guinea), Pitcairn-Norfolk, Hawaiian Pidgin English, Ngatik Men's Language, Australian Kriol, Broken (spoken on the Torres Strait Islands), and Nauruan Pidgin English.
The previous statement could be regarded as a refined definition of forced grammaticalization, which covers the two groups of changes in Estonian and Finnish, as well as instances of abrupt grammaticalization in pidgin languages and local varieties of internationally used languages.
This process has been reflected in the development of a number of pidgin languages and the establishment of English and French as the dominant world languages in the Pacific.
But, they concede, that reliance faded over time as creoles replaced African slaves, biblical names replaced some African-based names, English displaced pidgin languages, and Christianity became dominant in the quarters.