pidgin

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pidgin

(pĭj`ən), a lingua francalingua franca
, an auxiliary language, generally of a hybrid and partially developed nature, that is employed over an extensive area by people speaking different and mutually unintelligible tongues in order to communicate with one another.
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 that is not the mother tongue of anyone using it and that has a simplified grammar and a restricted, often polyglot vocabulary. The earliest documented pidgin is the Lingua Franca (or Sabir) that developed among merchants and traders in the Mediterranean in the Middle Ages; it remained in use through the 19th cent. Other known pidgins have been employed in different regions since the 17th cent. An example is the variety of pidgin English that resulted from contacts between English traders and the Chinese in Chinese ports. In fact, the word pidgin supposedly is a Chinese (Cantonese) corruption of the English word business. Another well-known form of pidgin English is the Beach-la-Mar (or Bêche-de-Mer) of the South Seas. The different kinds of pidgin English have preserved the basic grammatical features of English, at the same time incorporating a number of non-English syntactical characteristics. The great majority of words in pidgin English are of English origin, but there are also Malay, Chinese, and Portuguese elements. As a result of European settlers bringing to the Caribbean area large numbers of slaves from West Africa who spoke different languages, other pidgins evolved in that region that were based on English, Portuguese, Dutch, French, and Spanish. Examples of pidgins based on non-European languages are Chinook, once used by Native Americans in the Pacific Northwest, and Lingua Gêral, based on a Native American language and used in Brazil. The Krio language of Sierra Leone and Tok Pisin of Papua New Guinea are examples of creoles, pidgins that have acquired native speakers. See also creole languagecreole language
, any language that began as a pidgin but was later adopted as the mother tongue by a people in place of the original mother tongue or tongues. Examples are the Gullah of South Carolina and Georgia (based on English), the creole of Haiti (based on French), and
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.

Bibliography

See D. Hymes, ed., Pidginization and Creolization of Languages (1971); J. Holm, Pidgins and Creoles (2 vol., 1988–89) and An Introduction to Pidgins and Creoles (2000); S. Romaine, Pidgin and Creole Languages (1988).

References in periodicals archive ?
Chapter 6, "Oceanic Serial Verbs and Melanesian Pidgin" (pp.
Despite the lack of specific evidence to support Hashimoto's theory of a Manchu-Chinese pidgin, it remains a fact that when one travels north or south in China, the Chinese dialects one encounters tend to resemble to some degree the non-Chinese languages that border them.
187-222) concentrates on the linguistic situation in the anglophone western provinces, where English coexists (and is often insufficiently distinguished from) an indigenous pidgin English (PE).
May he have many more years to share with us his ideas and insights on creoles, pidgins, "and sundry languages."
Examples of what look like the transitive suffix in other English-lexicon pidgins and creoles, particularly some of the West African varieties, appear to be largely sporadic and never to have become fully grammaticalized.
New users of the language are not just passively absorbing, but actively shaping it, breeding a variety of regional Englishes, as well as pidgins and English-lexified creoles.
Readers of epics like Dante's INFERNO will find this akin in structure and drama, offering up an invented language blending extinct English dialects with Latin, Spanish, Korean and other pidgins. No lightweight read, it's a pick for college-level collections specializing in modern literary poetic structure and is especially recommended for classroom assignment.
Tryon and Jean-Michel Charpentier: Pacific Pidgins and Creoles: Origins, Growth and Development.
Personally, I find it ludicrous to suggest pidgins speak any language at all, let alone English.