of Cases Percentage% Lower 39 65 Upper 21 35 Total 60 100 Chart 2: Pie diagram showing distribution of socioeconomic status socioeconomic status Lower 65% Upper 35% Note: Table made from pie chart.

of Cases Percentage (%) Smoking 24 40 Alcohol 18 30 Both 15 25 None 3 5 Total 60 100 Chart 3: Pie diagram showing personal habits of Patients wit perforated duodenal ulcers Personal Habits Smoking 40% Alcohol 30% Both 25% None 5% Note: Table made from pie chart.

The age and sex distribution is given in Table 1 and Pie diagram. The maximum incidence was in the age group of 21-30 years (23.3%), which is followed by that of 31-40 years (20.7%), and 41-50 years (17.2%).

18 16 21-30 yrs 27 23.3 31-40 yrs 24 20.7 41-50 yrs 20 17.2 51-60 yrs 13 11 61-70 yrs 8 7 70-80 yrs 2 2 >80 yrs 3 2.6 Pie Diagram showing sex ratio Male 65.51 Female 34.94 Note: Table made from pie chart.

In the Statistical Brevity (1801) he published the first circle and

pie diagrams. He realised non-spatial quantities could be represented by physical space with advantages over tables unlike many of the more respected mathematicians and scientists of his day particularly in England.

Urban density (population/hectare) MADRID 40+ BERLIN.VIENNA 30-40 MONTREAL COPENHAGEN, TORONTO STOCKHOLM VANCOUVER 20-30 DENVER, CHICAGO 10-20 ATLANTA 0-10 Road length per capita (meters/person) BERLLIN MADRID, VIENNA 1-2 2-4 TORONTO MONTREAL, STOCKHOLM CORPENHAGEN CHICAGO, VANCOUVER 4-6 6-8 DENVER ATLANTA 8-10 The

pie diagrams indicate the proportion of all trips made by private motorized vehicle (mostly cars and public transit, walking and cycling).

Once the data are in table format, they can be examined visually via the plot-view option, in which the data can be viewed by using Venn diagram plots, stack or sorting bins, and

pie diagrams. Time series plots and axis plot tools are also included.