vinifera during the species' evolution, such as Pierce's disease
and grapevine red blotch disease.
However, in the early 1990s, widespread outbreaks of oleander leaf scorch in Southern California, followed by significant outbreaks of Pierce's disease
(PD) in table, raisin and wine grapes in the Temecula Valley in the late 1990s, were linked to transmission of the causal bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa, via GWSS.
Beyond cotton, piercing-sucking insects are a particular concern because they vector major plant diseases, such as Pierce's disease
in grapes and Huanglongbing, also known as "citrus greening," in citrus.
AD: Alfalfa Dwarf Disease; ALS: Almond Leaf Scorch; CLS: Coffee Leaf Scorch; CVC: Citrus Variegated Chlorosis; PD: Pierce's Disease
of grapevine; PPD: Phony Peach Disease.
Xylella fastidiosa is the causative agent of Pierce's disease
The researchers note that ax21 is also found in many other species of Xanthomonas as well as in Xylella fastidiosa, a microbe that causes the devastating Pierce's disease
It's a strong flyer and has proved an unusually fast spreader of pathogens such as those for phony peach disease or for Pierce's disease
, which can kill a grapevine in 2 years.
The sharpshooter is a carrier of Pierce's disease
, which infects and kills vines.
Searching for the source, scientists homed in on the sharpshooter, a large insect with transparent wings that arrived in California in 1989 from its native habitat in the Southwest and Mexico, and began transmitting Pierce's disease
across Temecula's vineyards.
symptoms vary with species and cultivar, but are typified by marginal browning of leaves in late summer and fall, and death of vines, according to John Hartman, Extension plant pathologist for the University of Kentucky College of Agriculture.
Some strains of the microbe cause Pierce's disease
, a serious problem for grapevines in the United States and Central America.
Pierce proved that what would come to be called Pierce's disease
was caused by a living organism that had invaded the vine's upper reaches, its trunk and branches.