Pierre Curie


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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Curie, Pierre

 

Bom May 15, 1859, in Paris; died there Apr. 19, 1906. French physicist. Member of the French Academy of Sciences (1905). Upon graduating from the University of Paris (1877), Curie worked there as a laboratory assistant. From 1882 to 1904 he worked at the Ecole de Physique et de Chimie Industrielle in Paris, first as director of research and then as a professor. Beginning in 1904 he was a professor at the University of Paris. His principal works were devoted to the physics of crystals, magnetism, and radioactivity. Together with his brother, Paul-Jean Curie, he discovered and investigated the phenomenon of piezoelectricity (1880). Curie also studied (1884–45) problems of the symmetry of crystals (in particular, he formulated Curie’s principle) and the problem of symmetry in physics in general (1894). As a result of his studies in magnetic phenomena, Curie established the dependence of magnetic susceptibility of paramagnetic bodies on the absolute temperature (Curie’s law) and discovered a special temperature, above which ferromagnetic materials become paramagnetic (Curie point).

From 1898, Curie and his wife, M. Sklodowska Curie, conducted studies on radioactivity. They discovered polonium and radium (1898) and determined the complex nature of the radiation emitted by radium and the coloration of glass and porcelain by this radiation (1899). In 1903, Pierre Curie discovered the spontaneous evolution of heat by radium salts. He also studied the biological effects of radioactivity. He was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1903.

WORKS

Oeuvres. Paris, 1908.
In Russian translation:
Izbrannye trudy. Moscow-Leningrad, 1966. (The series Klassiki nauki.)

REFERENCES

Curie, M. Pierre Curie. Moscow, 1968. (Translated from French.)
Shpol’skii, E. V. “Zhizn’ i deiatel’nost’ P’era Kiuri.”
Uspekhi fizicheskikh nauk, 1956, vol. 58, issue 4.
Starosel’skaia-Nikitina, O. A. “Zhizn’ i tvorchestvo P’era Kiuri.” Tr. In-ta istorii estestvoznaniia i tekhniki, 1957, vol. 19.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
She received her first Nobel Prize in 1903, together with Becquerel and Pierre Curie, for the discovery of radioactivity.
Becquerel had noted an accidental burn on his skin as the result of carrying an ampoule of radium in his pocket and in 1901 Pierre Curie confirmed this by deliberately producing a burn on his own arm with this material.
By the late 1890s, Antoine-Henri Becquerel and Marie and Pierre Curie had discovered the radioactive elements contained within uranium ore, and radium isolated by Marie Curie from uranium-containing ores was thought to hold promise for curing cancer (1).
A few days before the Christmas of 1898, Pierre Curie scrawled the word `radium' in his notebook as the name for a new element he and his wife Marie had brought laboriously to light in their ramshackle laboratory in Paris.
Fortunately, the significance of Becquerel's contribution was quickly realized and in 1903 he was also awarded the Nobel Prize for physics, which he shared with Pierre Curie and Marie Skoldowska Curie, who were honoured for their research on the radiation phenomenon reported by Becquerel.
In 1880 a French chemist, Pierre Curie (1859-1906), noted that if a crystal of quartz was placed under pressure, an electric potential appeared across it.
Edison, Alexander Graham Bell, Theodore Roosevelt, Pierre Curie, and Roy Chapman Andrews.
1898: Marie and Pierre Curie announced their discovery of radium after painstaking processing of the mineral pitchblende, from which they had already discovered polonium.
Besides Marie and Pierre Curie, who else won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1903?
1902 Marie Curie and husband Pierre Curie isolated radium for the first time.