Piezoelectric Materials

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Piezoelectric Materials


crystalline substances with strongly pronounced piezoelectric properties used in the manufacture of electromechanical devices, such as piezoelectric resonators, piezoelectric transducers, and sound emitters and receivers. The basic characteristics of piezoelectric materials are (1) the electromechanical coupling factor Piezoelectric Materials, where d is the piezoelectric strain coefficient, E is the elastic modulus, and ∈ is the dielectric constant (for anisotropic piezoelectric materials, all values are tensor values); (2) the value k2/tan δ, which determines the efficiency of the conversion (δ is the dielectric loss angle); (3) the ratio of the mechanical power of a piezoelectric element at the resonance frequency to the square of the intensity of the electric field in the element, a ratio defined by_the value (dE)2; and (4) the values Piezoelectric Materials and Piezoelectric Materials, which determine the sensitivity of the sound receiver, respectively, in the resonance range and at low frequencies (cs is the speed of sound in piezoelectric materials). Table 1 lists the characteristics of some of the most widely used materials.

Special requirements for piezoelectric materials depend on the intended usage. Among the required special properties are high electrical and mechanical strength, weak dependence upon temperature of the characteristics, high quality faction, and moisture resistance.

Piezoelectric materials can be categorized either as single crystals, which occur as natural minerals or are grown artificially (quartz, ammonium and potassium dihydrogen phosphate, Rochelle salt, lithium niobate, silicon selenite, germanium selenite), or as polycrystalline ferroelectric solid solutions, known as piezoelectric ceramics. These ceramics, after synthesis, are subjected to polarization in an electric field.

Few of the single crystals are actually used as piezoelectric elements. Quartz is widely used because of its mechanical strength, small dielectric loss, resistance to moisture, and the stability of its properties in the face of temperature change. However, its piezoelectric effect is comparatively weak; furthermore, the dimensions of quartz crystals are small, and quartz is difficult to work with. Quartz is used mainly in piezoelectric filters and frequency stabilizers. Laboratory applications of quartz include their use in emitters and receivers of ultrasonic waves. Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate is an artificially grown ferroelectric crystal. It is chemically stable up to its melting point (130°C), exhibits a strongly pronounced piezoelectric effect, and has a low density; it does not, however, pos-

Table 1. Basic characteristics of the most widely used piezoelectric materials at temperatures of 16°-20°C
 Density p × 103(kg/m3)Speed of sound Cs ((103m/sec)Dielectric constantPiezoelectric modulus d × 10-12coulombs/newtonLoss tangent tan × 102Electromechanical coupling factor kk2/tan δRemarks
Note: Numbers in parentheses for the single crystals determine the indexes of the corresponding tensor characteristics. For example, (36)/2 means 1/2d36. For the piezoelectric ceramics, the values of the constants on top have indexes (11) or (31); those on the bottom have the index (33), with values d31 < 0 and d33 > 0. The tg δ values for the crystals are given for a field E < 0.05 kilovolt/cm; for the piezoelectric ceramics, tan δ is given in the interval 0.05 kilovolt/cm ≤ E < 2 kilovolts/cm. Data for the piezoelectric ceramics made in the USSR are based on GOST (USSR Standard) 18927–68.
Quartz ..............2.65.47(11)4.5(11)2.31(11)<0.50.095>2.0x-cut
Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP)......1.83.25(33)15.324.0(36)/2<10.28>8cut at 45° to z-axis
Lithium sulfate.........2.054.7(33)10.3(22)16.3(22)<10.30>10y-cut
Rochellesalt..........1.773.1(22)350(11)275>50.65>8cut at 45° to x-axis; substance decomposes at T>55°C
Antimony sulfoiodide.....5.21.5(33)2,200(33)Piezoelectric Materials5–100.8(33)6.4 
Piezoelectric ceramics Barium titanate (TB-1).5.3Piezoelectric Materials1,500Piezoelectric Materials2–3Piezoelectric MaterialsPiezoelectric Materials 
 Calcium barium titanate (TBK-3)5.4Piezoelectric Materials1,200Piezoelectric Materials1.3–2.5Piezoelectric MaterialsPiezoelectric Materials 
 Group of lead titanate zirconates        
 TsTs-23.........7.4Piezoelectric Materials1,100Piezoelectric Materials0.75–2.0Piezoelectric MaterialsPiezoelectric Materials 
 TsTBS-3 ........7.2Piezoelectric Materials2,300Piezoelectric Materials1.2–2.0Piezoelectric MaterialsPiezoelectric Materials 
 TsTSNV-1 .......7.3Piezoelectric Materials2,200Piezoelectric Materials1.9–9.0Piezoelectric MaterialsPiezoelectric Materials 
 PZT-5H.........7.5Piezoelectric Materials3,400Piezoelectric Materials2.0–9.0Piezoelectric MaterialsPiezoelectric Materialsdata from Clevite Corporation (USA)
 PZT-8..........7.6Piezoelectric Materials1,000Piezoelectric Materials0.4–0.7Piezoelectric MaterialsPiezoelectric Materialsdata from Clevite Corporation (USA)

sess sufficient mechanical strength. Crystals of Rochelle salt, which can be grown to large dimensions, possess high values of those characteristics that determine the sensitivity of a sound receiver. The use of Rochelle salt, however, is limited by the salt’s low resistance to moisture and low mechanical strength. Another drawback is the strong dependence of its properties on both the temperature (the salt has a low Curie point and a melting point of only 55°C) and the intensity of the electric field. Lithium niobate, silicon selenite, and germanium selenite have a strongly pronounced piezoelectric effect, high mechanical strength, and high acoustic quality. These materials are utilized in the ultrasonic frequency region. Materials such as tourmaline, potassium hydrogen phosphate, and lithium sulfate are not used. The most widely used industrial piezoelectric materials are the piezoelectric ceramics.


Fizicheskaia akustika, vol. 1, part A. Edited by W. Mason. Moscow, 1966. (Translated from English.)
Matauschek, I. Ul’trazvukovaia tekhnika. Moscow, 1962. (Translated from German.)
Ul’trazvukovye preobrazovateli. Edited by Y. Kikuchi. Moscow, 1972. (Translated from English.)


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Ultrasonic transducers based on piezoelectric materials are normally based on the excitation of geometrical resonances of the piezoelectric element.
Materials, is a designer and manufacturer of single crystal piezoelectric materials, serving major Original Equipment Manufacturers throughout the medical marketplace.
Piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites offer design versatility and performance advantages over both single-phase ceramic and polymer piezoelectric materials used in both sensing and actuating applications.
Working with the National Physical Laboratory and Cambridge-based dielectric antenna company Antenova, the Cambridge team found that, at a certain frequency, thin films of piezoelectric materials not only become efficient resonators, but efficient radiators as well, meaning that they can be used as aerials.
The 18 papers consider such topics as diopside glass-ceramics for dental and biomedical applications, the electrochemical detection of bacteria using graphene oxide electro-deposited on titanium implants, the mechanical behavior of alumina-toughened zirconia nanocomposites with different alumina additions, high-density implantable micro-electrode arrays for brain-machine interface applications, and hybrid energy harvesting using electro-active polymers combined with piezoelectric materials. ([umlaut] Ringgold, Inc., Portland, OR)
Recently, there have been various mathematical models developed to describe the behavior of the piezocomposite or laminated plates actuated and sensed by piezoelectric materials. Gornandt and Gabbert [1] have analysed the finite element method of thermopiezoelectric smart structures.
These are part of an even larger family of 2D materials whose piezoelectric materials remain unexplored.
Piezoelectric materials become charged when stressed and stressed when charged.
Wang's insight was to use piezoelectric materials, which convert mechanical energy into electrical current, to activate the gate.
Piezoelectric materials have the ability to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy and have potential applications as smart materials for sensors or actuator devices which require high direction sensitivity in structural health monitoring.
Piezoelectric materials are used in a variety of devices such as stress sensors, ultrasound emitters, and large-strain actuators.