Eventually Islam became a "problem to be solved" and the polarizing and failed solutions were grounded in misguided notions of multiculturalism as these received expression, first, in the ideology of pillarization
(think "mosaic") and then, second--when this proved catastrophic as a social policy--of assimilation into the liberal consensus, a "melting pot," with its enforced embrace of liberalism.
No wonder, then, that Muslim voters, and other citizens of migrant background have branched out from the traditional center left party (PPV) to support the new political party DENK (billed as an organization by and for those of migrant background), as well as D66 (Democracy 1966, formed in opposition to pillarization
), the pro-European party on the left seen as the most consistent protector of multiculturalism and immigration.
He pointed out that the president would reach out to political parties to end pillarization
in the country which led to the protests and arrests.
There are several published studies on the application of bentonites from Valle del Cauca, especially modifications via pillarization
with application in oxidation reactions [15, 17, 24-27].
As an example, one might think of something like Dutch "pillarization
" of schools, a system in which religious schools qualify for public funding.
The disparate communities converge on a common median of pillarization
' to improve the quality of life of the common man.
For instance, referring to Dutch sociologist Paul Scheffer, Kivisto asserts that the instantiation of pillarization
policies in the Netherlands resembles "a house of cards" because Islam "has not liberalized" and "resists the idea that religion and politics are separate spheres" (147).
These aspects are: (1) toleration, (2) Calvinism and separation of church and state, (3) equality of religions, (4) liberal versus neo-Calvinist conceptions of pluralism and neutrality, (5) "parallelism," "subsidiarity" and "pillarization
," (6) "depillarizaton," welfare state and civil society, and (7) immigration, secularization and subjectivation.
The process is known as "pillarization
"--the church is supported by these pillars.
(38) However, due to pillarization
policy which segments Dutch society along confessional lines to keep differences between religious groups in peace, private confessional schools have the right to prohibit expressions of religious conviction if they are regarded as contrary to the religious identity of those institutions.
The institution of the CBP, immediately after the Second World War, in a political context strongly marked by the 'pillarization
' of society, responded to the need for identifying a technical body where a joint strategy, able to enhance the economic recovery, could be worked out.
Taking a broader perspective, the marginal existence of radical (media) critiques in the Netherlands in the 20th century, the modest upsurge in the 1970s notwithstanding, can partly be explained by the political pressures exerted on the media to refrain from espousing radical leftwing views during pillarization
(De Winter, 2004; Jos van Dijk, 2004) and by the commercial logic on which the Dutch media have operated, especially since the 1970s.