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pilocarpine (pīlōkär`pēn), naturally occurring alkaloid obtained from plants of the genus Pilocarpus (family Rutaceae). By mimicking the effects of acetylcholineacetylcholine
, a small organic molecule liberated at nerve endings as a neurotransmitter. It is particularly important in the stimulation of muscle tissue. The transmission of an impulse to the end of the nerve causes it to release neurotransmitter molecules onto the surface of
..... Click the link for more information. , pilocarpine acts as a stimulant of the parasympathetic nervous systemnervous system,
network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the environment. Virtually all members of the animal kingdom have at least a rudimentary nervous system.
..... Click the link for more information. . It promotes the flow of saliva and urine and increases perspiration. Because it increases the outflow of fluid from the eye, reduces the pressure within the eye, and causes the pupil to contract, the drug is used to treat some types of glaucoma. It is also used for some tongue disorders.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.
a cholinomimetic medicine. Pilocarpine is an alkaloid that is obtained from the plant Pilocarpus pinnatifolius, which grows mainly in Brazil. Supplied as the hydrochloride salt, it is used as an ointment or in droplet form for the treatment of certain eye diseases, including glaucoma.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
C11H16N2O2 An alkaloid, in either oil or crystal form, melting at 34°C; soluble in chloroform, water, and alcohol; used in medicine.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive
A new study, conducted by the National Institute of Dental Research and published in the Archives of Internal Medicine, shows that a drug called pilocarpine hydrochloride
was safe and effective in relieving dry mouth in a group of 31 people with Sjogren's syndrome and other diseases that affect salivary-gland function.
Half of the animals were treated with pilocarpine hydrochloride
(340 mg/kg, i.p.) at the age of 30 days in order to induce status epilepticus (PILO, Figures 1(a) and 2(a)).
Among its most recent launches is pilocarpine hydrochloride
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