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The navigation of a vehicle, particularly a marine craft, by determining position relative to external reference points, usually fixed points on the earth.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(Russian, pilotirovanie), the control of the movement of an aircraft or spacecraft by a pilot or automatic control system for the purpose of charging or maintaining flight conditions. The piloting of guided unmanned aircraft is accomplished by commands that are issued by an operator at a ground station and are transmitted to the aircraft by means of electromagnetic waves (remote-controlled unmanned aircraft) or by commands issued by an on-board automatic control system in accordance with a program prepared in advance (unmanned aircraft with self-contained control).

Piloting is accomplished from the time of takeoff to the time of landing of an aircraft by means of controls that create the necessary moments of force with respect to the aircraft’s center of mass and that change the thrust of the propulsion system. For example, the task of piloting an aircraft consists primarily in varying lift and thrust and in creating or countering moments of force that rotate the aircraft with respect to the longitudinal, transverse, and vertical axes passing through the aircraft’s center of mass. Piloting and air navigation determine the overall process of the flying of the aircraft. Elevators, rudders, ailerons, spoilers, flaps, and other devices are made use of in the piloting of airplanes and gliders. Control rockets, control jets, or jet vanes are used in piloting vertical takeoff and landing aircraft—in conditions where air vanes are ineffective—and in spacecraft. In helicopters, piloting is accomplished primarily by varying the magnitude and direction of the rotor thrust.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
All collisions, groundings, strandings, or other marine perils sustained by vessels on which there was employed a licensed state pilot or certificated deputy pilot shall be reported to the office of the board or the piloting consultant within 48 hours of the occurrence...(36)
Further, incidents which result in oil discharge, other pollution, physical injury, or death must be reported within twenty-four hours by telephone or telegram to the office of the board or the piloting consultant employed by the board.(37)
Such actions can be taken after a hearing has found a pilot or deputy pilot guilty of: (1) failure to demonstrate the qualifications or standards for a license or certificate; (2) using narcotics or other type of chemical substance that impairs the ability to act as pilot or deputy pilot with reasonable skill and safety; (3) using alcohol to an extent that impairs the ability to fulfill the obligations of a pilot or deputy pilot, or that impairs the ability to act as pilot or deputy with reasonable skill and safety; (4) violating a lawful rule or order of the Board of Pilot Commissioners; or (5) negligence, incompetence, or misconduct in the performance of piloting duties.
Casualty Reports and Disciplinary Actions Involving Florida State Pilots and Deputy Pilots, 1978-83 Casualty Reports Year Number of Reports Most Common Type 1978 56 Grounding 1979 48 Grounding 1980 22 Grounding 1981 37 Grounding 1983 16 Grounding Total: 219 Disciplinary Actions Type Number Dismissal without prosecution 1 Letter of caution sent 9 Reprimand 3 Probation 2 Dismissed (prosecuted case) 8 Suspension 1 License reinstated after suspension 1 Total: 25 Source: Staff of the Senate Economic, Community, and Consumer Affairs Committee, A Review of Chapter 310, Florida Statutes Relating to Pilots, Piloting, and Pilotage (|Tallahassee~: Office of the Secretary of the Senate, 1983), pp.
According to the provisions of Section 310.151, Florida Statutes, this subgroup is to be composed of one of the pilot members of the full board, one of the regular members who is professionally involved in the maritime industry, and the three regular members who have no official connection with the piloting profession or the shipping industry.(42)