Pine Forest


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Pine Forest

 

a light coniferous forest in which pine is the predominant tree. Pine forests are widespread in the forest and forest-steppe belts of the temperate and subtropical zones and in the mountain-forest belt. They occur on sandy loams, sands, limestones, dolomites, and peat bogs. Pine forests on chalk outcrop-pings, as well as steppe and forest-steppe forests of the temperate belt, are preglacial in age. Subtropical pine forests occur in the mountains and on seacoasts.

Pine forests in North America are represented by various species that form pine groves on poor soils and ancient mixed forests with redwoods. Pine forests with juniper occur in the mountains of Mexico and the West Indies. In the Mediterranean region forests of Italian stone pine (Pinus pinea), Aleppo pine (P. halepensis), Crimean pine (P. pallasiana), Canary pine (P. canariensis), and Austrian pine (P. nigra) predominate. Endemic pine species include the Macedonian pine (P. peuce), which is found in the Balkans, and the Pitsunda pine (P. pityusa), which occurs near Cape Pitsunda in the Caucasus.

Forests of Italian stone pine with an understory of juniper and broom are common in Italy, Spain, Portugal, and Greece. Forests of Aleppo pine occur on poor soils in Algeria and Cyprus; such forests are encountered as far east as Syria and Palestine. The Canary pine is the dominant species in the pine forests of the Canary Islands. The mountain forests of the Balkans, the Pyrenees, the Apennines, Greece, Asia Minor, and Crete consist of the pine P. Laricio and an understory of evergreen shrubs. Classified among Mediterranean pine forests are the forests of Crimean pine in the Crimea and the forests of various pine species in the Caucasus.

In Southeast Asia (Yunnan Plateau, Burma, Cambodia, Japan, and the Philippines) subtropical pine forests form a belt of mountain forests composed of various species of pine. The ground is covered with grasses, and there usually is no shrubbery. The pine forests of the Yunnan Plateau consist of Chinese pine (P. sinensis). Boreal pine forests occur on the plains of Eurasia and North America. Canadian pine forests are confined to sand deposits and peat bogs; their species composition is similar to that of pine forests in the taiga zone of Eurasia, but there is a prevalence of white pine (P. strobus) and jack pine (P. banksiana). In Eurasia forests of Scotch pine predominate.

The various types of pine forests occurring in the taiga zone include those with soil covered with lichen, bearberry, bog moss, or true mosses with bilberry or foxberry. Steppe and forest-steppe zones are characterized by forb and steppe pine groves.

In the USSR pine forests occupy 94 million hectares, roughly 14 percent of the country’s forested area. They play an important part in preserving groundwater and raising yields of agricultural crops in arid zones. They also reinforce sands, gulleys, and mountain slopes and protect against snow avalanches and mud flows.

REFERENCES

Il’inskii, A. P. Rastitel’nosl’ zemnogo shara. Moscow-Leningrad, 1937.
Rastitel’nyi pokrov SSSR, part 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1956.

E. L. LIUBIMOVA

References in classic literature ?
The turrets of a convent stood out beyond a wild virgin pine forest, and far away on the other side of the Enns the enemy's horse patrols could be discerned.
Vainly Saxon's eye roved the pine forest in search of her beloved redwoods.
And south they went, along roads that steadily grew worse, through the dairy country of Langlois and through thick pine forests to Port Orford, where Saxon picked jeweled agates on the beach while Billy caught enormous rockcod.
They disappeared, and we followed them, passing through a deep pine forest, which for some miles allowed us to see nothing but its own dismal shade.
They had come up on the grassy scalp of the hill, one of the few bald spots that stood clear of the crashing and roaring pine forest.
She peeped from the window into the garden, and felt herself more regretful at leaving this spot of black earth, vitiated with such an age-long growth of weeds, than joyful at the idea of again scenting her pine forests and fresh clover-fields.
Of the Alps and Pyrenees, with their pine forests and their vices, they might give a faithful delineation; and Italy, Switzerland, and the south of France might be as fruitful in horrors as they were there represented.
My garden is surrounded by cornfields and meadows, and beyond are great stretches of sandy heath and pine forests, and where the forests leave off the bare heath begins again; but the forests are beautiful in their lofty, pink-stemmed vastness, far overhead the crowns of softest gray-green, and underfoot a bright green wortleberry carpet, and everywhere the breathless silence; and the bare heaths are beautiful too, for one can see across them into eternity almost, and to go out on to them with one's face towards the setting sun is like going into the very presence of God.
MP Yassine Jaber said, Agriculture ministry should do more than distributing pesticides on Nabatieh municipality to fight poisonous caterpillars that attacked pine forest in Tallat Al-Askar.
Summary: BEIRUT: It was a beautiful morning at Beirut's Pine Forest Tuesday where eighty-one EB3 students (4th graders) from College Sacre-CEour Gemayze anxiously gathered around to plant more than 30 pine trees.
Immediate action was deemed necessary as large areas of pine forest had already shown signs of drying out, before the appearance of the moth, which comes as an added strain on our vulnerable forests.
K&M Holdings LLC, led by Robert and Janie Kehler and Glenn and Leanna McClendon, bought Pine Forest Apartments at 301 Pine Forest Drive.