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Ecology the first species of plant or animal to colonize an area of bare ground
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a person who originates something, travels to a new and unexplored region, or opens new paths in science, technology, or art.



a member of the Lenin All-Union Pioneer Organization or of any of several democratic children’s organizations in foreign countries. The members of the Communist children’s groups that arose in Moscow in 1922 were the first to be called Pioneers.

Membership in the Pioneers is voluntary. The requirements the organization makes of the Pioneers and the Pioneers’ program of activity are defined in the Ceremonial Pledge that is given in becoming a Pioneer, in the rules of the Pioneers, in the motto “Be prepared for the struggle for the cause of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union!”, and in the response “Always prepared!” The Pioneers have their own revolutionary symbols —a red banner, a flag, a red necktie, and a badge; special paraphernalia—a bugle, a drum, and a uniform with insignia of rank; and rituals—a salute, marching in formation, assembly in ranks, carrying of the banner, raising of the flag, and so on. Special events connected with the organization include holidays and traditional Pioneer bonfire rallies.

The Pioneers are divided into three age-groups: 10-11, 11-12, and 13-15 years. Members of the organization form detachments that are established in school classes or at places of residence. Pioneers may be elected to the bodies of Pioneer self-government or chosen as delegates to Pioneer rallies, including all-Union rallies. Special all-Union gatherings a Pioneer may be chosen to take part in include those of the timurovtsy (Timur mass movement), the Young Friends of the Army, and the Young Correspondents.

Various incentives exist for Pioneers who particularly distinguish themselves in their schoolwork, labor, sports, and community affairs. An example is inscription in the Book of Honor of the All-Union Pioneer Organization. On Jan. 1, 1974, more than 3,000 Pioneers and Pioneer organizations were entered in the book. More than 35,000 Pioneers have received government awards. Four Pioneers have been granted the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, and two have received the title of Hero of Socialist Labor.

Among the first honorary Pioneers were N. K. Krupskaia, M. Gorky, S. M. Budennyi, K. E. Voroshilov, K. Zetkin, G. Dimitrov, E. Thälmann, and P. Togliatti. In 1974 the Lenin All-Union Pioneer Organization had 25 million members. Upon reaching the age of 14, Pioneers have the right to join the Komsomol if they receive the recommendation of their brigade council. More than 3 million Pioneers joined the Komsomol in 1973.


Estafeta pionerskikh pokolenii. [Moscow] 1972.
Bud’ gotov! [Moscow] 1972.
Tovarishch 1972. [Moscow] 1972.
Sputnik pionerskogo vozhatogo. Moscow, 1973.




the name of a series of American unmanned space probes designed to study the moon, the planets, and interplanetary space; the name also refers to their development and flight program.

Three types of Pioneers were developed for studying the moon. Three Pioneers of the first type, with a maximum weight of 39.2 kg, were launched in 1958 and were designed to fly by and take television pictures of the far side of the moon and to study cosmic radiation, the magnetic fields of the earth and moon, and micrometeorites. Of the two Pioneers of the second type, with a maximum weight of 6.1 kg (launched in 1958-59 and designed for study of the moon and cosmic radiation), one flew past the moon and became the first American artificial satellite of the sun. The three Pioneers of the third type, with a maximum weight of 176 kg, were launched in 1959-60 and were not placed in selenocentric orbit. They were designed for television coverage of the surface of the moon and for studying cosmic radiation, the magnetic fields of the moon and earth, and micrometeorites.

The five Pioneers launched in the period from 1965 to 1968, which were of similar design and had a maximum weight of 67 kg, were built specifically for the study of interplanetary space. They were designed to be placed in heliocentric orbits between the orbits of the earth and Venus and the earth and Mars, and their mission was the study of cosmic radiation (including radiation associated with solar flares), magnetic fields, micrometeorites, and cosmic rays. One Pioneer, weighing 43 kg, which had been intended for the study of Venus, was used for the same purpose. It was launched in 1960 and placed in a heliocentric orbit between the orbits of the earth and Venus. It was designed to study cosmic radiation, magnetic fields, micrometeorites, and solar radiation.

Pioneers with a maximum weight of 260 kg were built for the study of the distant planets. In 1973-74, two of them were the first to fly by and take television pictures of Jupiter and the asteroid belt. After reaching solar escape velocity, they will leave the solar system.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


An organism that is able to establish itself in a barren area and begin an ecological cycle.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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