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John. 1903--92, British artist. An official war artist in World War II, he is known esp for his watercolours of bombed churches and his stained glass in Coventry Cathedral
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(pepper), a genus of plants of the family Piperaceae. The plants are lianas, rarely small trees and herbs. The flowers are small, mostly unisexual, and in spicate inflorescences. There are approximately 700 species (according to other data, approximately 2,000), distributed in the tropics of both hemispheres, primarily in tropical America and the monsoonal areas of East Asia. The pepper (Piper nigrum), a woody liana, is the most important species. It grows in India and Southeast Asia and is cultivated in tropical areas. Its immature dried fruits yield black pepper; another spice, white pepper, is obtained by separating the pericarp from the mature fruits. The betel (P. betle) is used to make a stimulant masticatory. Many species, including kava (P. methysticum), cubeb (P. cubeba), and long pepper (P. Iongum), yield spices, aromatics, stimulants, or medicinal substances.

Several species of plants from different families are also commonly known as peppers, for example, Capsicum longum and Polygonum hydropiper. The fruits of P. nigrum and C. longum, which are used as condiments, are called pepper.


Siniagin, I. I. Tropicheskoe zemledelie. Moscow, 1968.
Macmillan, H. F. Tropical Planting and Gardening, 5th ed. London, 1943.
Uphof, J. C. T. Dictionary of Economic Plants, 2nd ed. Weinheim, 1968.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Edwards said about training Piper that it "took a lot of work to get it to" a point where Piper could feel used to looking at airplanes as it was "not something that is natural for a dog.
While she has traveled extensively to the United States and Europe, Piper was still doubly excited about her trip to Poland.
According to Mr Piper and Mr Webb, Mr Hales made no complaint about the gears although he raised concerns about the shuddering brakes.
The woman found Piper had smashed a window to get in, alcohol had been taken and he had defecated in most of the rooms.
(9) Although Hellenistic Sicily is distant from classical Athens, it is not unlikely that there were many tedious tasks that could be made less burdensome by listening to a female piper. Perhaps this sort of activity is what Eryximachus has in mind when he sends the hired piper away to "pipe to herself or, if she likes, for the women inside the house" in Plato's Symposium (176E).
Piper was born and raised in Worcester, daughter of the late William A.
Miami, FL, August 12, 2013 --(PR.com)-- Piper P., an innovative online gifting and e-commerce site offering trendy and chic hand-selected pieces of jewelry procured within the U.S.
BATTLING baby Piper Smith was born with three organs OUTSIDE her body.