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John. 1903--92, British artist. An official war artist in World War II, he is known esp for his watercolours of bombed churches and his stained glass in Coventry Cathedral



(pepper), a genus of plants of the family Piperaceae. The plants are lianas, rarely small trees and herbs. The flowers are small, mostly unisexual, and in spicate inflorescences. There are approximately 700 species (according to other data, approximately 2,000), distributed in the tropics of both hemispheres, primarily in tropical America and the monsoonal areas of East Asia. The pepper (Piper nigrum), a woody liana, is the most important species. It grows in India and Southeast Asia and is cultivated in tropical areas. Its immature dried fruits yield black pepper; another spice, white pepper, is obtained by separating the pericarp from the mature fruits. The betel (P. betle) is used to make a stimulant masticatory. Many species, including kava (P. methysticum), cubeb (P. cubeba), and long pepper (P. Iongum), yield spices, aromatics, stimulants, or medicinal substances.

Several species of plants from different families are also commonly known as peppers, for example, Capsicum longum and Polygonum hydropiper. The fruits of P. nigrum and C. longum, which are used as condiments, are called pepper.


Siniagin, I. I. Tropicheskoe zemledelie. Moscow, 1968.
Macmillan, H. F. Tropical Planting and Gardening, 5th ed. London, 1943.
Uphof, J. C. T. Dictionary of Economic Plants, 2nd ed. Weinheim, 1968.


References in periodicals archive ?
I don't know that if I had read the study "Cinnamon Polyphenol Extract Affects Immune Responses by Regulating Anti--and Proinflammatory and Glucose Transporter Gene Expression in Mouse Macrophages," I would've had a little more faith in its combination for the immune-modulating properties and pain-relief capacity of my blend of wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens), helichrysum (Helichrysum italicum), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), and Mentha piperita.
Pathak et al (16) also reported variations in larvicidal efficacy of essential oil extracts from four plants Tagetes erecta, Ocimum sanctum, Mentha piperita and Murraya koenigii against three species of mosquitoes, An.
has created a new line of attractively priced, proprietary mint flavors that deliver the consumer-preferred profiles of popular piperita oils such as Far West, Willamette, Yakima and Madras mints.
Extracts of oils from species such as Mentha x piperita, the peppermint, are used in a wide variety of preparations, including mouth washes, cold remedies, perfumes, toiletries, cigarettes, confectionery, ice cream and even liqueurs such as creme de menthe.
There were no stakes winners in 2007, which in many cases would have sounded a death knell, but, remarkably, 2008 has sparked a revival in fortunes - former Derby favourite and Group 2 winner Twice Over still remains as an interesting candidate to join African Rose at Group 1 level, while the Italian two-year-olds Sottone and Piperita have already won three Listed races between them.
Across from the woodland and bordering the pool is a scented lawn, featuring even more plants and herbs renowned for their health properties, including mentha piperita (black peppermint), the herb from which levomenthol is derived from - the main medicinal constituent of 4head.
Other mints, such as peppermint, M x piperita, have aromatic properties and the leaves are used to make refreshing teas which soothe the digestion and help you to sleep.
A total of 46 compounds, representing more than 90% of the total oil, were identified and quantitatively evaluated in the peppermint oils isolated from Mentha x piperita of different origins (Table 1, Fig.
The active principle in Mentha piperita is menthol, which is a cyclic monoterpene with calcium channel-blocking activity on intestinal smooth muscle; the therapeutic effect in IBS is a reduction in spasms of the colon.
Step Lively contains mentha piperita and wintergreen to stimulate the reflex points on the soles of your feet and send a tingling sensation up through your whole body
Peppermint is a well known perennial cultivated in Europe and the United States and is scientifically known as Mentha piperita.