a group of widely distributed parasitic diseases of the blood afflicting domestic and wild mammals, birds, fish, and amphibians; cases of human infection have also been reported. Piroplasmidoses are caused by unicellular organisms known as piroplasmids. Economic loss results from the destruction of animals (mortality rate, 30–60 percent), decreased productivity, and substantial expense for prevention and treatment. The causative agents parasitize the red blood cells. In stained preparations they are rounded, pear-shaped, double pear-shaped, amoeboid, or various other forms.
Piroplasmidoses are seasonal diseases. Most recorded cases have occurred in the spring and summer, when the causative agents are transmitted by arthropod carriers—ixodine ticks. Piroplasmidoses are characterized by elevated body temperature, anemia, jaundice of the mucosa, and hemoglobinuria. The animals become depressed, and their appetite decreases or is absent. Activity of the cardiovascular and digestive systems is disturbed. Animals that have been afflicted with piroplasmidosis acquire immunity during the period of parasitosis (from four months to two or three years). Preventive measures include protecting animals from infected ticks and treating the animals with special preparations.
REFERENCESAbramov, I. V. Osobennosli piroplazmoza i nuttalioza loshadei razlichnykh zon SSSR. Moscow, 1962. (Author’s abstract of dissertation.)
Dogel’, V. A., Iu. 1. Polianskii, and E. M. Kheisin. Obshchaia protozoologiia. Moscow-Leningrad, 1962.
Markov, A. A. “Krovoparazitarnye zabolevaniia sel’skokhoziaistven-nykh zhivotnykh (piroplazmozy, babeziellozy, nuttalioz, teileriozy, anaplazmozy) i printsipy bor’by s nimi v SSSR.” Trudy Vsesoiuznogo insituta eksperimental’noi veterinarii, 1957, vol. 21, pp. 3–33.
L. P. D’IAKONOV