Pius II


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Pius II

(pī`əs), 1405–64, pope (1458–64), an Italian named Enea Silvio de' Piccolomini (often in Latin, Aeneas Silvius), renamed Pienza after him, b. Corsigniano; successor of Calixtus III. He attended the Council of Basel (1432; see Basel, Council ofBasel, Council of,
1431–49, first part of the 17th ecumenical council in the Roman Catholic Church. It is generally considered to have been ecumenical until it fell into heresy in 1437; after that it is regarded as an anticouncil.
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) as a layman and joined its secretariat. He was an opponent of Pope Eugene IV and in 1439 became secretary to Antipope Felix V (Amadeus VIIIAmadeus VIII
, 1383–1451, count (1391–1416) and duke (from 1416) of Savoy, antipope (1439–49) with the name Felix V. In 1434 he appointed his son regent of Savoy and retired to the hermitage of Ripaille, on Lake Geneva, which he had founded.
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 of Savoy). Meanwhile he gained a European reputation as a humanist scholar. Holy Roman Emperor Frederick IIIFrederick III,
1415–93, Holy Roman emperor (1452–93) and German king (1440–93). With his brother Albert VI he inherited the duchies of Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola.
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 made him court poet and in 1442 secretary to the chancery in Vienna. In 1445, Piccolomini abandoned his rather dissipated way of life and began a new career. He went to Rome to submit to the pope and became (1446) a priest. He was made bishop of Trieste (1447), bishop of Siena (1449), and a cardinal (1456). As pope, Pius issued (1460) a bull condemning as heretical the conciliar theory (the doctrine that ultimate authority in the church rested in the general council rather than the pope). He was in continual dispute with Louis XI of France, who repeatedly attempted to control ecclesiastical affairs. He also quarreled with the Bohemian king George of PodebradGeorge of Podebrad
, 1420–71, king of Bohemia (1458–71). A Bohemian nobleman, he became leader of the Utraquists, or the moderate Hussites, in the wars between Hussites and Catholics.
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, rejecting (1462) the latter's petition that he confirm the Compactata (see HussitesHussites
, followers of John Huss. After the burning of Huss (1415) and Jerome of Prague (1416), the Hussites continued as a powerful group in Bohemia and Moravia. They drew up (1420) the Four Articles of Prague, demanding freedom of preaching, communion in both kinds (i.e.
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). Such quarrels hampered him in achieving his aim of uniting the Christian rulers in a crusade against the Turks. He was about to set out on a crusade himself when he died. He was succeeded by Paul II. Pius did not patronize art or literature, despite his own literary interests and considerable literary talents. Of his works the most useful is his autobiography, the only one written by a pope.

Bibliography

See L. C. Gabel, ed., Pius II: Memoirs of a Renaissance Pope (1959, repr. 1962); R. J. Mitchell, The Laurels and the Tiara (1962).

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Pius II

pen name Aeneas Silvius, original name Enea Silvio de' Piccolomini. 1405--64, Italian ecclesiastic, humanist, poet, and historian; pope (1458--64)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
In 1464, Pius II was succeeded by Pope Paul II, who declared that anyone trading in Turkish alum would be excommunicated and their property confiscated.
That this could and did occur is made abundantly clear in a decree of the town council of Siena, dated 5 October 1460, stating that "any member of the court of our Lord Pope Pius II of Siena who wishes so ...
1460); received sporadic assistance from Naples and Venice; his success was limited by clan jealousies, and Sultan Mehmet II concluded a ten-year truce with him (1461); broke the truce to attack the Turks, at the instigation of Pope Pius II, in alliance with the Venetians and Hungarians (1463?); successfully resisted a siege of his stronghold at Kruge (1466); traveled to Rome to seek aid from Pope Paul II (1467), but died on his way back to Albania at Alessio (January 17, 1468); the Turks swiftly reconquered Albania following his death, except for Kruge, which he had willed to Venice.
As deputy to his friend Pope Pius II, he was able to write philosophical works in peace and deal in them with esoteric and subtle ideas.
Canonized by Pope Pius II in 1461, she was declared a Doctor of the Church in 1970.
Among their topics are the Good Fowler as a world conqueror: images of Suleyman the Magnificent in early modern Hungarian literary practice, constructing a self-image in the image of the Other: Pope Pius II's letter to Sultan Mehmed II, and the Ragusan image of Venice and the Venetian image of Ragusa in the early modern period.
Enea Silvio's critique must be viewed against the background of his later service to the Church as Pope Pius II. Hutten's diverse life reflected his commitments to the nobility to which he belonged, to humanistic scholarship and study, to joining professional skills and private interests in service to public responsibilities, and to life in a society, however corrupt, in which he could achieve fame and success for himself and respect for his social class.
Richardson (art history, The Open U., Britain) wrote her dissertation on cardinals of Pius II, then realized that cardinals by their nature represent a continuity that transcends individual popes.
The period, 1430-1536, begins before the ascension of Pope Pius II Piccolomini of Siena in 1458 and ends after Spanish troops controlled by Charles V arrive in 1530.
Only two years afterwards, Piccolomini emerged from the papal conclave with the Virgilian name of Pope Pius II.
And whether Clement's death in 1314 can "be regarded as the end of a serious papal attempt to launch a crusade after the fall of Crusader Acre" (128) is a conclusion that students of Pius II's reign may wish to challenge.