Pius VII


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Pius VII,

1740–1823, pope (1800–1823), an Italian named Barnaba Chiaramonti, b. Cesena; successor of Pius VI, who had created him cardinal in 1785. He conducted himself ably during the period of the French Revolution, showing sympathy for the social aims of the Revolution. A protracted conclave in 1799–1800 ended with his election. His secretary, Ercole ConsalviConsalvi, Ercole
, 1757–1824, Italian cardinal and papal diplomat. In his first term (1800–1806) as secretary of state for Pope Pius VII he negotiated the Concordat of 1801 with Napoleon Bonaparte (later Emperor Napoleon I).
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, was a guiding force throughout his pontificate. An early event was the Concordat of 1801Concordat of 1801,
agreement between Napoleon Bonaparte and Pope Pius VII that reestablished the Roman Catholic Church in France. Napoleon took the initiative in negotiating this agreement; he recognized that reconciliation with the church was politic.
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 with Napoleon, to reestablish the church in France and set up a new hierarchy; much of it was vitiated by Napoleon's Organic Articles, which Pius would not accept. In 1804, Napoleon forced Pius to come to Paris to consecrate him as emperor, only to demean him at the last minute by taking the crown from the pope's hands and crowning himself. Napoleon found Pius intractable when not directly under his influence, and the French eventually took Rome (1808) and the Papal States (1809). Pius excommunicated the assailants of the Holy See, and Napoleon had him taken prisoner and removed to Fontainebleau. The pope was browbeaten into signing a new concordat, which he disavowed after the battle of Leipzig. In 1814, after Napoleon's downfall, Pius returned to Rome in triumph. One of his first acts was to restore the Society of Jesus. The rest of Pius's pontificate was devoted to reestablishing the church in Europe. The Papal States were restored at the Congress of Vienna, and a series of concordats were signed with European powers. At the same time Pius VII's stolidity in the face of humiliation began a revival of personal popularity for the pope that has since characterized Catholicism. Napoleon had treated Pius VII with sneering brutality, yet the pope's treatment of the fallen emperor's family was a model of benevolence: he gave them haven at Rome and interceded with the British to lighten Napoleon's treatment. He was on better terms with Great Britain than any pope had been since the Reformation, and he was keenly interested in the United States and in the Roman Catholic Church there. His patronage of artists was munificent. Leo XII succeeded him.

Bibliography

See E. E. Y. Hales, The Emperor and the Pope (1961).

Pius VII

original name Luigi Barnaba Chiaramonti. 1740--1823, Italian ecclesiastic; pope (1800--23). He concluded a concordat with Napoleon (1801) and consecrated him as emperor of France (1804), but resisted his annexation of the Papal States (1809)
References in periodicals archive ?
The 19th century would see a resurgence in papal diplomacy with the concordat signed between the Pius VII and Napoleon in 1801.
The net result was that Napoleon gained a semblance of religious peace at home, while Pius VII increased his own influence in France and, in fact, helped set the stage for the future Restoration.
In 1814, Pope Pius VII revived the Jesuit movement.
Anniversaries: 1697: The new St Paul's Cathedral was opened; 1804: Napoleon crowned Emperor in Paris by Pope Pius VII; 1901: King Camp Gillette patented the first safety razor; 1907: English footballers formed the Professional Footballer's Association; 1 942: The world's first nuclear chain reaction took place at University of Chicago; 1985: Death of poet Philip Arthur Larkin; 1990: Helmut Kohl's Christian Democrats won the first general election in the reunited Germany.
It was universally restored by Pope Pius VII in 1814, but has continued to suffer from exile and confiscation in several nations.
Madame Recamier (1800), Pope Pius VII (1805), and Bernard (1820).
Beatified on April 30, 1768, by Pope Clement XIII, she was canonized on May 24, 1807, by Pope Pius VII.
She died in 1540 and was canonized by Pope Pius VII on May 24, 1807.
Napoleon Bonaparte was a military general who rose to become the first emperor of France, crowning himself in ceremonies presided over by Pope Pius VII at the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris in 1804.
The so-called New Society, restored by Pope Pius VII in 1814, has unfortunately attracted less interest from historians.
He was secretary of state to Pope Pius VII (1800-23), but he did not, as the author suggests he did, hold the office throughout the pontificate: At one point he resigned, to be reinstated some years later.
1804: Napoleon was crowned Emperor in Paris by Pope Pius VII. On this day one year later he defeated Austro-Russian forces at the Battle of Austerlitz.