Pope Pius X
(Giuseppe Sarto) held office from 1903 to 1914.
's pontificate continued this "agonistic" outlook.
This paper will first examine how Tolkien's personal letters during the Second Vatican Council in the 1960s actually reiterate language and arguments devised by Pius X
. Connecting Tolkien's religious philosophy to his fantasy reveals anti-modernist influences through The Silmarillion and the conclusion of The Hobbit, which specifically re-inscribes the anti-modernist faith in Providence despite human involvement in history.
(If the airplane had been available in Pius X
's day, he would have flown to France, Spain and Portugal to put down the "plague of modernism.")
Moreover, he also spoke out directly and critically of Pius X
's encyclical Pascendi (1907), which resulted in his suspension as professor of theology in 1908.
Pope Pius X
's encyclical, Pascendi dominici gregis, criticized in a prophetic manner this dead-end way of thinking: "Laymen and clergy who lack the protection of sound philosophy and theology are setting themselves up as would-be reformers of the Church and her faith." Such reformers want, the pope warned, "a total 'makeover' ...
As Pius X
remarked: "To put it plainly, to be a priest and to be vowed to toil--these are one and the same thing;' As bishops, Oliver Plunkett and Jean Baptiste Lamy took their responsibilities to perform Confirmations seriously: upon his return to Ireland, Plunkett confirmed 10,000 people of all ages, and on just one trip to Mexico, Lamy confirmed 35,000.
He is even gentle in judging Pius X
's draconian measures against the Modernists.
conclusively demonstrate that the anti-Modernist campaign was well formulated and functioning already in 1903, at the end of Leo XIII's and the beginning of Pius X
's papacies--in contrast to the till-now dominant view of most Modernist scholars that the campaign coalesced only from 1905 to 1907 (9-10).
They convince him that Pope Pius X
's infamous statement that the laity "are to be led like a docile flock by their pastors" was an aberration, though a longstanding one, to what should be the modus operandi of the church.
, now officially sainted, was elected in 1903 at age 68 after the quarter-century reign of Leo III and served just 11 years.
's motu proprio imposing the Oath against Modernism.