chocolate

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chocolate,

general term for the products of the seeds of the cacaocacao
, tropical tree (Theobroma cacao) of the family Sterculiaceae (sterculia family), native to South America, where it was first domesticated and was highly prized by the Aztecs. It has been extensively cultivated in the Old World since the Spanish conquest.
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 or chocolate tree, used for making beverages or confectionery. The flavor of chocolate depends not only on the quality of the cocoa nibs (the remainder after the seeds are fermented, dried, and roasted) and the flavorings but also on a complex process of grinding, heating, and blending. The chocolate liquid formed in an intermediate stage is used in the confectionery trade as a covering for fruits, candies, or cookies, or the process may be continued and the resulting smooth mass of chocolate molded, cooled, and packaged as candy. It should be hard enough to snap when broken, have a mellow flow when melting, be free of gritty particles, and have a rich, dark color and an aromatic smell and flavor.

A chocolate beverage was known to the Aztecs and through Spanish explorers found (c.1500) its way into Europe; the Maya also made such a drink, perhaps as early as 900 B.C., and may also have used chocolate in prepared food. In 1657 a shop was opened in London where chocolate was sold at luxury prices. It became a fashionable drink; many shops sprang up to become centers of political discussion and grow into famous clubs, such as the Cocoa Tree. Chocolate was first manufactured in the United States at Milton Lower Mills, near Dorchester, Mass., in 1765. About 1876, M. D. Peter of Vevey, Switzerland, perfected a process of making milk chocolate by combining the cocoa nib, sugar, fat, and condensed milk. The United States has the world's largest chocolate-manufacturing industry.

Bibliography

See B. W. Minifie, Chocolate, Cocoa and Confectionery (1970); S. Beckett, Industrial Chocolate Manufacture and Use (1982); J. G. Brenner, The Emperors of Chocolate (1999); M. Norton, Sacred Gifts, Profane Pleasures: A History of Tobacco and Chocolate in the Atlantic World (2008).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Chocolate

 

a confectionery obtained by processing cacao beans with sugar and other food products. Chocolate was long used as a beverage in Mexico. During the 16th century, the Spanish brought cacao beans from Mexico to Europe.

A distinction is made between natural chocolate, which contains only cacao products (cacao beans and cocoa butter) and sugar, and chocolate with additives, such as dried milk, coffee, and nuts. Depending on the fineness of the particles, chocolate is subdivided into plain and dessert chocolate. Chocolate confectioneries often contain various fillings. The fat content of chocolate is 35–37 percent; the caloric value is 2,240 kilojoules, or 540 kilocalories, per 100 g.

After cleaning, sorting, and roasting, cacao beans are broken up into nibs, which are then ground into a plastic liquor. The liquor is then pressed to obtain cocoa butter. Chocolate is obtained by mixing the liquor, cocoa butter, sugar (usually powdered), and the necessary flavorings and aromatic additives. This mixture is then ground until the size of the solid particles does not exceed 20 micrometers. The resulting mass is mixed once more with cocoa butter and cooled to 30°–31°C, whereupon it is ready to be produced into plain chocolate or chocolate-coated candy by chocolate-molding equipment. To produce dessert chocolate, which has improved flavor and aroma, the chocolate mass is subjected to additional processing, at a temperature of 70°C for an average of three nights and days, before it is molded.

Chocolate is manufactured in the form of blocks, various figures, and round medallions; chocolate confectioneries are produced as bars or assorted candies. Natural chocolate can be stored up to six months, and mixed chocolate, up to three months.

G. A. MARSHALKIN

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

What does it mean when you dream about chocolate?

For most people chocolate is considered an indulgence. Chocolate in a dream may therefore symbolize that the dreamer feels the need to be rewarded and deserves special treatment. Alternatively, perhaps the dreamer has been indulging in too many excesses and needs to practice some restraint.

The Dream Encyclopedia, Second Edition © 2009 Visible Ink Press®. All rights reserved.

chocolate

[′chak·lət]
(food engineering)
A dark, bitter, or sweet product that is manufactured from chocolate liquor (or nibs), sugar, and cocoa butter.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

chocolate

a. a moderate to deep brown colour
b. (as adjective): a chocolate carpet
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Ingredients: * 2 bars of plain chocolate * 1 bar of light-colored milk chocolate * 1 dl milk * 3 dl double cream * 3 fresh eggs * 1 tablespoon of sugar
INGREDIENTS 200g good quality plain chocolate 200g good quality plain chocolate 200g unsalted butter 200g unsalted butter 7 eggs, separated 7 eggs, separated 140g caster sugar 140g caster sugar 2 drops lemon juice 2 drops lemon juice Creme fraiche to serve Creme fraiche to serve METHOD Preheat oven to 160C/Gas mark 3.
CHOCONANA MUFFINS Prep time: 10 minutes + cooling Cooking time: 20-25 mins Makes 12 You need: 225g/8oz plain flour 25g/1oz cocoa powder 5ml/1 tsp baking powder 2.5ml/' tsp bicarbonate of soda 150g/5oz caster sugar 3 ripe bananas 2 large British Lion eggs, beaten 60ml/4tbsp sunflower oil To decorate: 50g white or plain chocolate or half of each Chocolate eggs to decorate 1 Preheat the oven to 200[bar]C/Gas Mark 6.
Ingredients: 150g/5.5oz plain chocolate broken into chunks 85g/3oz olive oil spread 80ml/2.5fl oz hemp oil 3 eggs 175g/6oz caster sugar 1tsp vanilla extract 115g/4oz self raising flour 25g/1oz ground flaxseed 1/2tsp baking powder 55g/2oz chopped walnuts 85g/3oz white chocolate chips Method: 1.
Stars: Price: 99p for 400g Available: Waitrose Asda plain chocolate digestives I'm a fan of plain chocolate but I found the variety used on top of these a little bit bitter and it jarred with the sweet wholemeal biscuit beneath.It could probably have done with a little less chocolate.
INGREDIENTS: 200g plain chocolate (up to 50% cocoa solids), broken into pieces, 100g unsalted butter, cut into 6 pieces, 4 medium eggs, separated, 150g blueberries, 150ml cassis (blackcurrant) liqueur, 6 tbsp Greek yoghurt, crme frache or fromage frais, to serve METHOD: Put the chocolate and butter into a heatproof bowl.
Ingredients 600ml tub essential Waitrose Double Cream 400g Waitrose Belgian Plain Chocolate 3 tbsp Golden syrup 50g Butter, diced Selection of dippers to serve: Marshmallows, mini meringue shells, sponge fingers, shortbread and fruit slices, such as banana, mango and pear
CHOCOLATE FUDGE CAKE Ingredients 1lb sugar 150ml milk 150g butter 100g plain chocolate 50g clear honey Method 1.
Washington, Dec 11 (ANI): Dark chocolate gives more of a feeling of satiety than milk choco bars, say researchers, who suggest that the "plain chocolate" may be an efficient way to keep weight down.
And digestives with plain chocolate are biscuits found in dreams.
Put the plain chocolate and butter in a large bowl, place over a pan of simmering water and allow to melt.
If desired, pipe melted plain chocolate in a zigzag pattern across the top of the remaining six discs.