Plant cell

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Plant cell

The basic unit of structure and function in nearly all plants. Although plant cells are variously modified in structure and function, they have many common features. The most distinctive feature of all plant cells is the rigid cell wall, which is absent in animal cells. The range of specialization and the character of association of plant cells is very wide. In the simplest plant forms a single cell constitutes a whole organism and carries out all the life functions. In just slightly more complex forms, cells are associated structurally, but each cell appears to carry out the fundamental life functions, although certain ones may be specialized for participation in reproductive processes. In the most advanced plants, cells are associated in functionally specialized tissues, and associated tissues make up organs such as the leaves, stem, and root. See Cell walls (plant)

Plant and animal cells are composed of the same fundamental constituents—nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and various inorganic substances—and are organized in the same fundamental manner. A characteristic of their organization is the presence of unit membranes composed of phospholipids and associated proteins and in some instances nucleic acids.

Perhaps the most conspicuous and certainly the most studied of the features peculiar to plant cells is the presence of plastids. The plastids are membrane-bound organelles with an inner membrane system. Chlorophylls and other pigments are associated with the inner membrane system. See Cell (biology), Cell plastids, Chlorophyll

References in periodicals archive ?
The role of the plant cell wall in plant life emerged with the compartment to compartment proteomics.
Protalix is a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of recombinant therapeutic proteins expressed through its proprietary plant cell based expression system, ProCellEx.
He said: "Our work shows that the UPS also acts on subcellular compartments in plant cells called chloroplasts, which are responsible for the light-driven reactions of photosynthesis that power almost all life on Earth.
The basic nutritional requirements of cultured plant cells are very similar to those normally utilized by whole plants.
y otros cautro autores; Cell cycle-regulated histone gene expression in synchronized plant cells, Plant J.: 7, 245-252 (1995).
Two adjacent plant cells are held together by the middle lamella, composed primarily of cementing pectic substances, and the primary cell wall on each side of the middle lamella.
The company's research has been featured in a number of American scientific journals, including Science and The Plant Cell.
Fungal endophytes slip into plant leaves and stems to set up housekeeping between, or even inside, plant cells. Some fungal endophytes, such as those in tall rescue or other grasses, also infiltrate the seeds that their host plants are forming, thereby stowing away for the ride to the next generation.
determine the plant cell wall spiral thickening's direction of twist and apply this information to a botanical identification;
Researchers interested in increasing plant cells' use of carbon for seed storage products like starch, oil, and protein have been studying sucrose synthase.
"There are multiple advantages to producing pharmaceuticals via plant cell fermentation," said Magnus Precht, who has joined Phyton as General Manager: "Phyton's plant cell fermentation technology enables the production of known and novel plant-derived complex small molecules as well as biopharmaceuticals from transgenic plant cells.
Prior to his team's recent discovery, plant biologists presumed that phytochelatins only acted within individual plant cells, surrounding and binding to, or "chelating" heavy metal ions, forming a complex, which is then sequestered in vacuoles--large storage compartments within plant cells.