plant breeding

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plant breeding,

science of altering the genetic pattern of plants in order to increase their value. Increased crop yield is the primary aim of most plant-breeding programs; advantages of the hybrids and new varieties developed include adaptation to new agricultural areas, greater resistance to disease and insects, greater yield of useful parts, better nutritional content of edible parts, and greater physiological efficiency. Other goals are adaptation of crops to modern production techniques such as mechanical harvesting and improvement in the market quality of the product.

Traditionally, plant breeders have made genetic changes in crops by using various crossing and selection methods, creating desirable hybridshybrid
, term applied by plant and animal breeders to the offspring of a cross between two different subspecies or species, and by geneticists to the offspring of parents differing in any genetic characteristic (see genetics).
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; breeders also now attempt to induce favorable genetic mutationsmutation,
in biology, a sudden, random change in a gene, or unit of hereditary material, that can alter an inheritable characteristic. Most mutations are not beneficial, since any change in the delicate balance of an organism having a high level of adaptation to its environment
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 by the use of ultraviolet light, gamma radiation, or chemicals. With the development of genetic engineeringgenetic engineering,
the use of various methods to manipulate the DNA (genetic material) of cells to change hereditary traits or produce biological products. The techniques include the use of hybridomas (hybrids of rapidly multiplying cancer cells and of cells that make a
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, plant breeders have increasingly used its techniques to introduce desirable traits (i.e., genes), often from other species, into cultivated plants.

See also breedingbreeding,
in agriculture and animal husbandry, propagation of plants and animals by sexual reproduction; usually based on selection of parents with desirable traits to produce improved progeny.
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References in periodicals archive ?
This newly developed technology should lead to substantial time and cost savings in the agricultural plant improvement process.
The two technical studies needed for the plant improvement were financed and fully executed with technical cooperation funds from the Bank's Sustainable Environment and Climate Change initiative (SECCI).
But despite the fact that flavor is a key factor in plant product acceptance, plant improvement programs formerly treated flavor perception as secondary.
The purpose of the first publication was to provide a social history of both the scientific and commercial aspects of plant improvement.
leaving an outstanding sewage plant improvement bill; Miller says it wants to settle the bill and expand production.
When CMI committed to producing these parts, it also committed to a full plant improvement and expansion process that eventually enabled its Bristol operation to produce 750,000 fully heat treated, machined, X-rayed and assembled crossmembers each year.
Employee development: Ongoing training enables employees to contribute effectively to plant improvement, and provides incentives to contribute to future development.
Scowcroft of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) in Canbe ra, Australia, reported that such variability is widespread and proposed that it could be a new source of traits for plant improvement.
Co- published simultaneously as Journal of Plant Improvement, v.
DEDICATED: Bob Waggitt (left), Mash Mistry, Mervyn Flounders (health, safety and enviroment officer), Rebecca Smith and Paul Aplin (front) form the plant improvement team.