planter

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planter,

farm or garden implement that places propagating material such as seeds or seedlings into the ground, usually in rows. Broadcasting, i.e., scattering seed in all directions, by hand followed by harrowing (see harrowharrow,
farm implement, consisting of a wooden or metal framework bearing metal disks, teeth, or sharp projecting points, called tines, which is dragged over plowed land to pulverize the clods of earth and level the soil.
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) to cover the seed with soil was an early method of planting. Mechanical planters for small grains appeared in the United States around 1800; corn and cotton planters followed (1840–1880). Machines are currently available for almost every crop, including transplanting or plant-setting machines, which place live seedlings into the soil at spaced intervals, supply them with water and fertilizer, then close and pack the soil around them.

Bibliography

See H. P. Smith, Farm Machinery and Equipment (5th ed. 1964); C. Culpin, Farm Machinery (8th ed. 1969).

Planter

A permanent, ornamental container to receive planted pots or boxes, often nonmovable and integral with the finish of a building.

Planter

 

a machine for the uniform sowing of crop and grass seed by depositing the seeds in the soil at the required depth. Planters can also be used for sowing tree seeds in nurseries and for depositing mineral fertilizers in the soil.

Planters are classified according to the sowing method. Seed drills deposit seeds continuously using the row, narrow-row, wide-row, or band seeding method. Checkrow planters deposit clusters of seeds at the corners of squares or rectangles. Hill-drop planters distribute clusters of seeds in rows. Single-seed planters sow individual seeds at uniform intervals in wide rows. Broadcasters scatter fertilizers and seeds, such as grass seed for improving natural pastures, onto the surface of a field.

A distinction is made between general-purpose and special-purpose planters. General-purpose planters are used for sowing seeds of various crops; for instance, planters designed for grain seeds and grain-and-grass seeds can be used for sowing seeds for grain, bean, and olive crops, grass seed, and seed for bast crops. Special-purpose planters are designed for sowing seed for a single crop or a limited number of crops, for example, beet, cotton, corn, and vegetable crops. Planters may be combined with fertilizer attachments that deposit mineral fertilizers in the soil.

Planters are also classified according to the traction method used as tractor-driven (mounted or trailer-type), horse-drawn, or manually propelled. Only tractor-driven planters are manufactured in the USSR.

Each planter has one or two hoppers or several separate boxes for the seeds. A seeding mechanism feeds the seeds at a uniform rate from the hopper or boxes to seed spouts. Shares form furrows in the soil, and the seeds are deposited in the furrows. Covering devices deposit soil in the furrows and level the surface of the field. Some planters have stirrers located in the hopper; the stirrers prevent the seeds from sticking together in clumps and ensure better feeding of the seeds to the seeding mechanism. In broadcasters, a flat distributing device is mounted behind the seeding mechanism; the seeds fall uniformly from the device onto the field. The working elements, that is, the seeding mechanisms and stirrers, are rotated by a direct drive (in mounted planters) or by a support-wheel drive (in trailer-type planters) using chain or gear drives. Foreign planters use similar engineering designs.

In the USSR other types of planters are also used for planting crop seeds. They include combination planter-plows, planter-cultivators, and planter-stubble plows. Planter-plows are equipped with a plow body, seed hoppers with seeding mechanisms, and seed spouts. The machines simultaneously plow and deposit seeds in the furrows formed by the plow body. Planter-cultivators are designed to work soil previously worked by machines without moldboards; they are also able to plant seeds in stubble land. They simultaneously sow, loosen the soil, cut weeds, deposit mineral fertilizer in the rows, and turn over the seeded rows. Planter-stubble plows have stubble disks and spool-type seeding mechanisms with seed spouts. The seeds pass through the spouts into furrows formed by the disks and are later covered with soil.

REFERENCE

Karpenko, A. N., and A. A. Zelenev. Sel’skokhoziaistvennye mashiny, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1968.

planter

A permanent, ornamental container to receive planted pots or boxes, often nonmovable and integral with the finish of a building.
References in classic literature ?
He accordingly gave her a long particular of things necessary for a planter, which, by his account, came to about fourscore or a hundred pounds.
"Well, we jogged on together some time, till Alfred saw plainly that I was no planter. He thought it absurd, after he had reformed, and altered, and improved everywhere, to suit my notions, that I still remained unsatisfied.
Alfred who is as determined a despot as ever walked, does not pretend to this kind of defence;--no, he stands, high and haughty, on that good old respectable ground, the right of the strongest; and he says, and I think quite sensibly, that the American planter is `only doing, in another form, what the English aristocracy and capitalists are doing by the lower classes;' that is, I take it, appropriating them, body and bone, soul and spirit, to their use and convenience.
He went to the planter, and "My mother's dead," said he, weeping.
"She died on the last plantation two months ago, and she died once before that when you were working for me last year," said the planter, who knew something of the ways of nativedom.
"Call Chihun, who comes from Deesa's village," said the planter. "Chihun, has this man got a wife?"
"You will get into a difficulty in a minute," said the planter. "Go back to your work!"
"He'll work now," said Deesa to the planter. "Have I leave to go?"
The planter nodded, and Deesa dived into the woods.
None the less he worked well, and the planter wondered.
Chihun reported the state of affairs to the planter, who came out with a dog-whip and cracked it furiously.
"Hold on!" spoke up the Shortlands planter. "Give the dog a square deal.