In Brazil, 23 species of microhymenopterans have been reported as egg parasites of hemipteran pests of soybean, the most commonly cited ones being Telenomus podisi (Ashmead) and Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston) (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae
) (Loiacono 1980; Correa-Ferreira & Moscardi 1995; Loiacono & Margaria 2002).
The most abundant of these taxonomic groups was Diapriidae (19.1%), followed by Platygastridae
(16.3%), Mymaridae (8.7%), Ceraphronidae (7.2%), Phygadeuontinae (Ichneumonidae) (6.6%), and Myrmicinae (Formicidae) (5.9%).
ha-1 was classified as harmless (class 1) or slightly harmful (class 2) to Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae
) (STECCA, 2015) and T.
, Ichenumonidae, and Braconidae were the most abundant families at the BPWR site, accounting for 30 %, 21.40 %, and 11.40 % of relative frequency of individuals, respectively (Fig.
and Trissolcus spp.) in at least three families (Encyrtidae, Eupelmidae, Platygastridae
) that parasitize sentinel (laboratory-sourced) BMSB egg masses deployed in the field (see Rice et al.
) e nove do hiperparasitoide Chartocerus sp.
Of these, two are attacked by a small apterous maritime wasp, Echthrodesis lamorali Masner, 1968 (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae
: Scelioninae) (Lamoral 1968; Masner 1968; Branch & Branch 1981; Van Noort 2009; Van Noort et al.
One possibility is the release of egg parasitoids such as Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae
), which is very effective against fall armyworm (Guitierrez-Martinez et al., 2012).
Teratocytes or teratocyte-like cells have been documented in developmental studies of four hymenopteran families: Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, and Platygastridae
[7, 8] and have been reported in a single species of chalcids .
Parasitoides (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, Signiphoridae, Platygastridae
) de Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell, 1896) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) en el estado de Veracruz, Mexico, y descripcion del macho de Encarsia dominicana Evans, 2002.