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condition of the soil or subsoil in which the soil grains become cemented together by such bonding agents as iron oxide and calcium carbonate, forming a hard, impervious mass. It is disadvantageous to farming, interfering with the circulation of moisture in the soil and with the growth of roots through the soil. When the condition is caused by the filling of the air spaces in the soil with fine particles of clay, the subsoil is called a clay pan. This usually occurs in acid soil.


An extremely hard soil containing gravel and boulders.




An extremely dense hard layer of soil, boulder clay, or gravel; difficult to excavate.
References in periodicals archive ?
In wheat-based cropping systems, the continuous use of conventional tillage for preparing seedbed leads to the development of a plough pan. This plough pan may influence the crop productivity by altering soil physical properties (Bertolino et al., 2010; Akmal et al., 2015) and developing penetration resistance up to tilled depth (Micucci and Taboada, 2006).
Twelve ponded rings (0.3 m diameter) were installed 0.1 m into the plough pan layer (from 0.1 to 0.2 m) and flow rates measured over a 24-h period.
Both cropped soils had well established plough pans. Soil was removed to 0.15 m to expose the plough pan layer in cropped plots, and to 0.03 m in pasture plots.
[K.sub.-1 cm] (pre-wet, confined) values under grass were nearly 2 orders of magnitude higher (25 mm/h) than through the plough pan layer (0.3 mm/h) on the Bongeen soil, and about 4 times greater for the Ruthven soil.