Pneumatophore


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pneumatophore

[′nü·məd·ə‚fȯr]
(botany)
An air bladder in marsh plants.
A submerged or exposed erect root that functions in the respiration of certain marsh plants.
(invertebrate zoology)
The air sac of a siphonophore.

Pneumatophore

 

the organ of hydrostatic equilibrium in the colonial Siphonophora. The pneumatophore is located on the upper end of the common trunk of the colony. Its cavity is divided into air-bearing and glandular areas. The cells of the glandular area excrete a gas that is similar in composition to air.


Pneumatophore

 

a terrestrial ventilative or respiratory root of some tropical woody plants. Pneumatophores characterize many trees that form mangrove forests, some palms, and the American bald cypress. Such plants grow on swampy soils with a poor oxygen content or along seashores that are flooded when the tide is in. Pneumatophores develop from subterranean roots or rhizomes and grow vertically, rising above the water or soil. Their biological significance is mainly their supply of air to subterranean organs. This is promoted by the anatomic structure of pneumatophores: their thin bark, numerous lenticels, and system of air-bearing intercellular spaces. An abundance of intercellular space often is responsible for the white color of pneumatophores. Plants that usually have pneumatophores do not form them when grown on soils that are not swampy. Thus, pneumatophores are absent in the bald cypress that is raised as an ornamental on the southern coast of the Crimea, in the Caucasus, and in Middle Asia.

References in periodicals archive ?
Summary of mixed-model ANOVAs testing for effects of substrate treatment (pneumatophore, pneumatophore + shell, and pneumatophore + oyster) and tidal elevation (low, mid, and high) on the abundance of new (shell height, <1.
glomerata is the dominant species on rocky intertidal shores, forming patches of 90-100% cover, and is also abundant in mangrove forests, where it attaches to the pneumatophores (peg roots) and trunks of mangrove trees, forming dense aggregations (Chapman & Underwood 1995, Bishop et al.
At each tidal elevation of each habitat, we established 3 experimental treatments: bare (rock or pneumatophores without additional structure), shell (rock or pneumatophores with dead shell), and oyster (rock or pneumatophores with live oysters attached).
Within the mangrove forest, the factor plot was nested within tidal elevation only, with 5 replicate pneumatophores of each treatment per plot.
distinct pneumatophores at base; shoot-borne roots absent.
simple; pneumatophores at base; root hairs abundant.
disk collar not swollen; secondary roots simple; pneumatophores present;
collar present; secondary roots branched; pneumatophores present;
Short shoots ascending; leaves lanceolate, 3-10 mm long, appressed and overlapping, free portion not contracted and basally twisted; pneumatophores with obtuse apex.
This pattern was consistent with the much greater availability of hard substratum for attachment on rocky shores than in mangroves, a predominantly sedimentary environment where oysters are confined to pneumatophores and tree trunks.
Primary root persistent; secondary roots branched; shoot-borne roots present; pneumatophores present; collar roots and root hairs absent.