Podostemaceae


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Podostemaceae

[pə‚däs·tə′mās·ē‚ē]
(botany)
The single family of the order Podostemales.

Podostemaceae

 

a family of dicotyledonous plants including annual or perennial herbs. The plants, which are usually very small, often resemble the thallus of some liverworts, lichens, or algae. The plants grow on rocks, on cliffs, or, less frequently, on tree trunks in fast-flowing water and waterfalls. They often cling to the substratum by means of special hooks called haptera. As a rule, the thallus-like part is of root origin, with secondary shoots usually growing from it exogenously. The alternate leaves are entire or dissected. The tiny, inconspicuous flowers are bisexual; they are solitary or gathered in cymose inflorescences. The fruit is a capsule with very tiny seeds. There are 43 genera, comprising about 200 species.

The plants are widely distributed, mainly in the tropics of America and the tropics and subtropics of Asia and Africa. The members of the family Podostemaceae are an example of the extreme specialization of plants under specific environmental conditions.

REFERENCES

Takhtadzhian, A. L. Sistema i filogeniia tsvetkovykh rastenii. Moscow-Leningrad, 1966.
Engler, A. “Podostemonaceae.” In Die natiirlichen Pflanzenfamilien, 2nd ed., vol. 18a. Edited by A. Engler. Leipzig, 1930.

M. E. KIRPICHNIKOV

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References in periodicals archive ?
Thus, communities and / or populations of podostemaceae and their associated fauna that are highly sensitive to changes in flow and height (Flausino-Junior, 2008) are no longer observed in these regions.
guianense fazem oviposicao especificamente em areas de corredeiras rapidas e grandes rios turbulentos e cachoeiras e que a especie e "especialista" (VILLAMIZAR et al., 2011).Os estagios imaturos do S.guianense foram coletados em plantas aquaticas (Podostemaceae) VILLAMIZAR et al., (2011).
guianense larvae and pupae with Podostemaceae has been reported in the literature (e.g., Gomes & Py-Daniel 2002).
Aunque 115 especies se comparten entre los dos tipos de humedales, un porcentaje muy bajo de ellas (7.5%) pueden sobrevivir exclusivamente en agua corriente, como las de la familia Podostemaceae, algunas de las cuales tienen una distribucion tan restringida que inclusive solo se conocen de una o dos localidades, tal es el caso de Oserya longifolia (Jalisco) y Vanroyenella plumosa (Jalisco y Oaxaca) (Novelo y Philbrick, 1997).
(Podostemaceae): implications for colonization of glaciated North America.
However, some wind-pollinated species in the Datiscaceae and Podostemaceae have anomalously high ovule numbers, in the hundreds per flower (C.
Palynology of South American Podostemaceae. Grana 41: 10-15.
However, due to lack of local information regarding the time of colonization of aquatic macrophytes, present in great amount in the riverbeds of the region, mainly Podostemaceae, this substrate had only its fauna removed.
In Lacistemataceae (Endress, 1999), some Euphorbiaceae (Radcliffe-Smith, 2001; Prenner & Rudall, 2007; Prenner et al., 2008), some Podostemaceae (Cook & Rutishauser, 2007), and some cleistogamous flowers of Violaceae (Weibel, 1941), monosymmetry by reduction is present.
Pollen morphology of neotropical species of Podostemum (Malpighiales: Podostemaceae).