Poikilotherm


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poikilotherm

[pȯi′kil·ə‚thərm]
(zoology)
An animal, such as reptiles, fishes, and invertebrates, whose body temperature varies with and is usually higher than the temperature of the environment; a cold-blooded animal.

Poikilotherm

 

a cold-blooded animal, that is, an animal with a variable body temperature that changes as a function of the temperature of the environment. Poikilotherms include all invertebrates; the only poikilothermic vertebrates are fishes, amphibians, and reptiles.

The body temperature of poikilotherms is generally only 1° or 2° higher than, or equal to, that of the environment. Thermoregulation is imperfect. In many poikilotherms the body temperature rises as a result of muscular work or the absorption of solar heat. For example, the body temperature of bumblebees in flight may reach 38° or even 44°C at an air temperature of 4° to 8°C. However, after the cessation of flight the body cools rapidly to the temperature of the environment. If the external temperature rises above or falls below optimal limits, poikilotherms become torpid or perish. Many of them are in torpor a large part of the year; for example, the turtle Testudo horsfieldi is active only three months of the year. The absence of perfect thermoregulatory mechanisms in poikilotherms may be explained by the relatively poor development of their nervous systems (especially the central nervous system), a level of metabolism approximately 20 to 30 times lower than that of homeo-therms, and other features associated with the fact that poikilotherms have a more primitive organization than birds and mammals.

References in periodicals archive ?
Hibernation: poikilotherms. --Encyclopedia of Life Science, Wiley.
The effect of temperature changes on the activity of poikilotherms. Behaviour 13: 259-279.
According to Sharpe & DeMichele (1977), extreme temperatures affect the catalysis of enzymes involved in the development of poikilotherms. In this sense, our results could be interpreted as an indirect evidence of the effect of unsuitable thermal conditions on the enzymatic activity during immature stage development.
All amphibians are poikilotherms, that is, they are totally dependent upon their environment to regulate body temperature and metabolic activity.
With regard to fish, one would not expect that metabolic body size as predicted by Kleiber's (1932) formula would apply because fish muscles are not working against gravity and because fish are poikilotherms. Brett (1973) reports that the maintenance energy requirement of fish is 5% to 10% that of other livestock of similar size in a thermoneutral environment.
Food web magnification of persistent organic pollutants in poikilotherms and homeotherms from the Barents Sea, Environ.
Plants are poikilotherms and most do not produce sufficient heat to raise the temperature of bulk tissue.
Temperature-induced shift in foraging ability in two fish species, roach (Rutilus rutilus) and perch (Perca fluviatilis): implications for coexistence between poikilotherms. Journal of Animal Ecology 55:829-839.
Today, the three main groups of amphibians--salamanders, frogs, and toads--are found worldwide but, as is true of other poikilotherms (animals with variable body temperature), the majority dwell in tropical and temperate regions.
Like other poikilotherms, development of PFB is dependent on the ambient temperature, thus completion of pupation period and emergence of adults is likely to vary with the outside temperatures.