Simeon Denis Poisson

(redirected from Poisson)
Also found in: Dictionary, Medical, Wikipedia.

Poisson, Siméon Denis

(sēmāôN` dənē` pwäsôN`), 1781–1840, French mathematician and physicist. From 1802 he taught at the École polytechnique, Paris, and was also on the faculty of sciences at the Univ. of Paris from 1809. His chief interest lay in the application of mathematics to physics, especially in electrostatics and magnetism. He developed a two-fluid theory of electricity and provided theoretical support for the experimental results of others, notably C. A. de Coulomb. Poisson also made important contributions to mechanics, especially the theory of elasticity; to optics; to the calculus, especially definite integrals; to differential geometry; and to probability theory. Other studies were concerned with heat and the motions of the moon. In all he wrote more than 300 papers on mathematics, physics, and astronomy, and his Traité de mécanique (1811) was long a standard work.

Poisson, Siméon Denis


Born June 21, 1781, in Pithiviers, department of Loiret; died Apr. 25, 1840, in Paris. French scientist. Member of the Académie des Sciences (1812). Honorary member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg (1826).

Poisson joined the staff of the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris after graduating from that institution in 1800. He became a professor there in 1806. In 1809 he was made a professor at the University of Paris. His research dealt with theoretical mechanics, celestial mechanics, mathematics, and mathematical physics.

Poisson was the first to write equations in analytic mechanics in terms of momentum components. In hydrodynamics, Poisson generalized the Navier-Stokes equation to the case of the motion of a viscous compressible fluid with heat transfer being taken into account. He solved a number of problems in elasticity theory, introduced what is now known as Poisson’s ratio, and generalized the equations of elasticity theory to anisotropic bodies. In celestial mechanics, Poisson investigated the stability of the motion of the planets in the solar system; he also attempted to solve the problem of the perturbations of the planets’ orbits and the problem of the motion of the earth about its center of gravity. He introduced what is now referred to as the Poisson equation into potential theory and used it to solve problems in gravitation and electrostatics.

Poisson was the author of studies on the integral calculus, the calculus of finite differences, the theory of partial differential equations, and probability theory. In the field of probability theory, he proved a special case of the law of large numbers and a limit theorem.

Poisson also investigated problems in thermal conductivity, magnetism, capillarity, the propagation of sound waves, and ballistics. He was a staunch supporter of P. S. Laplace’s atom-


Traité de mécanique, 2nd ed., vols. 1–2. Paris, 1833.
Théorie nouvelle de l’action capillaire. Paris, 1831.
Théorie mathématique de la chaleur…. Paris, 1835.
Recherches sur la probabilité…. Paris, 1837.


Arago, F. Biografii znamenitykh astronomov, fizikov i geometrov, vol. 3. St. Petersburg, 1861. (Translated from French.)
Klein, F. Lektsii o razvitii matematiki v XIX stolelii, part 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1937. (Translated from German.)


References in periodicals archive ?
With odds of Ireland beating France currently at 4/6, the 19th century Poisson Theory revealed the outcome would either be very close at 18-15 to Ireland, or 26-18 if Ireland manage to break away during battle for first in the pool.
All the above-mentioned models could only be applied to material with Poisson ratio smaller than 0.
France's Le Figaro quoted Poisson as saying that "The key to the Middle East is in Damascus," with the deputy saying that France lost its position and influence in the region due to its policies towards Syria, urging the French President and Foreign Minister to "wake up.
What Monsieur Poisson did not know was that he was the victim of the biggest bluff ever perpetrated in the catalogue of conmanship.
En recevant lundi dans son bureau la delegation de (UNIDO) qui met en place le projet de developpement du secteur de poissions, Eila a affirme le souci du gouvernement de l'Etat de developper les ressources marines a l'Etat ainsi que la possibilite de la creation de nouveaux sites de poisson, en plus de continuer a soutenir les pecheurs par des equipements necessaire pour profiter des stocks de poissons sur la cote de la Mer Rouge.
Les historiens ont deplore les injustices decoulant de ce << systeme >> aux apparences de regime feodal qui a permis aux elites sportives nord-americaines d'exercer un monopole territorial et culturel sur les ressources de 1'arriere-pays, et ce, au nom de la conservation du gibier et du poisson.
1 and 2 correspond to regions of space passing the Earth that have preferred/discrete velocities, and not random ones, as randomly distributed velocities would result in a Poisson distribution, i.
Female with two protarsal segments Ctenipocoris africanus Poisson -- Pronotum with greatest width approximately 3x its length at midline (Figs 17-19).
It is defined as the union of a family of independent random compact subsets (denoted for short as "objects") located at the points of a locally finite Poisson process.
The Governor's Excellence in Energy Efficiency Awards for 2013 were recently presented to the Police Standards and Training Council, state employee Jim Poisson of the Department of Environmental Services and the New Hampshire Veterans Cemetery.
D'oE emane l'idee du jour du poisson d'avril c'est le jour de ceux qui n'acceptent pas la realite ou la voient autrement.