Limbourg brothers

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Limbourg brothers

(lăNbo͞or`), fl. 1380–1416, family of Franco-Flemish manuscript illuminators. The Limbourg brothers, Pol, Jan, and Herman, were trained as goldsmiths. They succeeded Jacquemart de HesdinHesdin, Jacquemart de
, fl. c.1384–1411, Franco-Flemish manuscript illuminator. Jacquemart illustrated numerous books of hours, including a number of manuscripts for Jean, duc de Berry.
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 in 1411 as court painters to Jean, duc de Berry. Their masterpiece is the magnificent book of hoursbook of hours,
form of prayer book developed in the 14th cent. from the prayers of clerics appended to the main service. The subjects of the miniature illustrations (see miniature painting) were frequently derived from the appendix of the Psalter.
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 known as the Très Riches Heures (c.1415; Musée Condé, Chantilly). This is filled with exquisite illustrations of the daily life of the aristocracy and peasantry, including a series of calendar illuminationsillumination,
in art, decoration of manuscripts and books with colored, gilded pictures, often referred to as miniatures (see miniature painting); historiated and decorated initials; and ornamental border designs.
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 that are considered the finest extant examples of the International Gothic style (see Gothic architecture and artGothic architecture and art,
structures (largely cathedrals and churches) and works of art first created in France in the 12th cent. that spread throughout Western Europe through the 15th cent., and in some locations into the 16th cent.
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). The Limbourgs' influence upon Flemish painting, especially in landscape and genregenre
, in art-history terminology, a type of painting dealing with unidealized scenes and subjects of everyday life. Although practiced in ancient art, as shown by Pompeiian frescoes, and in the Middle Ages, genre was not recognized as worthy and independent subject matter
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 subjects, was profound and extensive.

Bibliography

See T. B. Husband, The Art of Illumination (museum catalog, 2009).