It sums up the achievements and failures of what in Polish has been called "the third republic," the original Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
being the first republic, the Polish republic between the two world wars being the second, and postcommunist arrangements being called the third.
In result, Poland as a sovereign state ceased to exist till year 1918 - during the Partitions Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia (Germany) and Habsburg Austria divided up the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
lands among themselves progressively in the process of territorial seizures.
Reading this argument, one recalls the German historian Rudolf Jaworski's astute observation that the differences among the three states that partitioned the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
invariably led to the creation of disparate forms of rule and social resistance in the three regions.
Moscow has always exploited weaknesses of neighboring democratic states in order to absorb them altogether, starting from the period of Novgorod Republic and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
, and finishing with carving up the entire map of Europe after the Second World War.
Furthermore, the Cold War erased all memory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
, the glorious Lithuanian independence of the interwar period, the two foreign occupations, and the trauma of mass killings, deportations, terror, and repressions.
Romani-Gypsy Presence in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Vyhovsky succeeded Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky who, as leader of the Cossacks, had attempted to separate from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
and to create a permanent autonomous Ukrainian Cossack state.
Anna Adamska's contribution, while dealing with a well-studied subject in other geographic contexts--the ownership and commissioning of books by royal women--throws light on the fascinating multi-lingual context of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Among their themes are the beginning of Jewish settlement there, possible multiple itineraries that brought Jews there, Jews who served the Polish nobility administering Ukrainian lands, Jewish responses to the establishment of Russian and Austrian rule in the areas of Ukraine that had been part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
, and the impact of the sovietization of Ukraine on Jewish-Ukrainian relations during the 1932-33 drought and World War II.
In the 17th century, the struggle among the Cossacks, Russia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
resulted in a split along the Dnieper River.
Political factors would frequently come into play, and with Russian encroachments into the Polish-Lithuanian commonwealth
, the unia was gradually eliminated in Eastern and Central Ukraine.
Throughout most of the nineteenth century, those Poles who dreamed of a resurrected Poland, or Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
, still thought in terms of a Poland within the borders of 1772, the year of the first of the three partitions of that once very large country.