conservatism

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conservatism,

in politics, the desire to maintain, or conserve, the existing order. Conservatives value the wisdom of the past and are generally opposed to widespread reform. Modern political conservatism emerged in the 19th cent. in reaction to the political and social changes associated with the eras of the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution. By 1850 the term conservatism, probably first used by Chateaubriand, generally meant the politics of the rightright,
in politics, the more conservative groups in the political spectrum, in contrast to the radical left and the liberal center. The designation stems from the seating of the nobility on the right side of the presiding officer in the French National Assembly of 1789.
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. The original tenets of European conservatism had already been formulated by Edmund BurkeBurke, Edmund,
1729–97, British political writer and statesman, b. Dublin, Ireland. Early Writings

After graduating (1748) from Trinity College, Dublin, he began the study of law in London but abandoned it to devote himself to writing.
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, Joseph de MaistreMaistre, Joseph de
, 1753–1821, French writer and diplomat. Born in Savoy, he was Sardinian ambassador at St. Petersburg from 1803 to 1817. A passionate Roman Catholic and royalist, he was master of a rigidly logical doctrine and the possessor of a great store of knowledge.
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, and others. They emphasized preserving the power of king and aristocracy, maintaining the influence of landholders against the rising industrial bourgeoisie, limiting suffrage, and continuing ties between church and statechurch and state,
the relationship between the religion or religions of a nation and the civil government of that nation, especially the relationship between the Christian church and various civil governments.
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. The conservative view that social welfare was the responsibility of the privileged inspired passage of much humanitarian legislation, in which English conservatives usually led the way. In the late 19th cent. great conservative statesmen, notably Benjamin DisraeliDisraeli, Benjamin, 1st earl of Beaconsfield
, 1804–81, British statesman and author. He is regarded as the founder of the modern Conservative party.
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, exemplified the conservative tendency to resort to moderate reform in order to preserve the foundations of the established order. By the 20th cent. conservatism was being redirected by erstwhile liberal manufacturing and professional groups who had achieved many of their political aims and had become more concerned with preserving them from attack by groups not so favored. Conservatism lost its predominantly agrarian and semifeudal bias, and accepted democratic suffrage, advocated economic laissez-fairelaissez-faire
[Fr.,=leave alone], in economics and politics, doctrine that an economic system functions best when there is no interference by government. It is based on the belief that the natural economic order tends, when undisturbed by artificial stimulus or regulation, to
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, and opposed extension of the welfare state. This form of conservatism, which is best seen in highly industrialized nations, was exemplified by President ReaganReagan, Ronald Wilson
, 1911–2004, 40th president of the United States (1981–89), b. Tampico, Ill. In 1932, after graduation from Eureka College, he became a radio announcer and sportscaster.
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 in the United States and Prime Minister ThatcherThatcher, Margaret Hilda Roberts Thatcher, Baroness,
1925–2013, British political leader. Great Britain's first woman prime minister, nicknamed the "Iron Lady" for her uncompromising political stance, Thatcher served longer than any other British prime minister in the 20th
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 in Great Britain. It has been flexible and receptive to moderate change, favors the maintenance of order on social issues, and actively supports deregulation and privatization in the economic sphere. Conservatism should be distinguished both from a reactionary desire for the past and the radical right-wing ideology of fascismfascism
, totalitarian philosophy of government that glorifies the state and nation and assigns to the state control over every aspect of national life. The name was first used by the party started by Benito Mussolini, who ruled Italy from 1922 until the Italian defeat in World
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 and National Socialism.

Bibliography

See R. Kirk, The Conservative Mind (rev. ed. 1960); J. Habermas, The New Conservatism (1989); T. Honderich, Conservatism (1991); C. Robin, The Reactionary Mind (2011).

conservatism

  1. any social and political doctrine which seeks to defend the institutions and social values of the existing order.
  2. any relatively stable set of POLITICAL ATTITUDES in support of the status quo, i.e. policies which seek to sustain or renovate rather than reconstruct the social fabric. As such, conservatism is the opposite of radicalism.
  3. support for the British Conservative Party. Conservative political ideology, in its modern forms, first manifested itself as a reaction to the French Revolution. Edmund Burke, in his Reflections on the French Revolution (1790), produced a classic statement in defence of the old order. His central argument was that the established social and political institutions should be defended because they existed; they had grown ‘organically’. Hence, they were a better guide to action than any theoretical construction, no matter how rational the latter may seem. Burke's ideas have provided a core theme. Conservatism has rarely been based on any overtly stated political philosophy, since the danger is that it could be regarded as ‘abstract’ and ‘ideological’.
Another persistent theme of traditional conservatism has been that the social order must be maintained by a leadership composed of ÉLITES holding key positions of political responsibility The STATE is seen as playing a central role in guaranteeing the social order, authority, and the maintenance of social hierarchy Inequalities are seen as necessary elements of society Conservatives also stress the importance of custom and tradition as prerequisites of a stable social order. MANNHEIM (1953), however, distinguishes between conservatism and ‘static traditionalism’. Conservative politics has often involved changes which have been seen as necessary for the preservation of the social order: renovation rather than reconstruction of the social fabric. Such notions rest on another central theme in conservative thought, the belief that the mass of people, because of their inherent qualities, including ignorance and selfishness, are unlikely to create a satisfactory social order through their own efforts. See also WORKING-CLASS CONSERVATISM, DEFERENCE, NEW RIGHT, THATCHERISM, PROPERTY.

Conservatism

 

adherence to all that is old, outmoded, and stagnant and hostility and opposition to progress and to everything that is new and progressive in society, science, technology, and art.

Conservatism

Apley, George
scion of an old Boston society family, he exemplifies its traditions and remains in old-fashioned mediocrity. [Am. Lit.: The Late George Apley in Magill I, 499]
Conservative party
British political party, once called the Tory party. [Br. Hist.: NCE, 632]
Daughters of the American Revolution
(D.A.R) conservative society of female descendants of Revolutionary War soldiers. [Am. Hist.: Jameson, 132]
elephant
symbol of the Republican party. [Am. Hist.: Misc.]
John Birch Society
ultraconservative, anti-Communist organization. [Am. Hist.: NCE, 1421]
laissez-faire
political doctrine that an economic system functions best without governmental interference. [Politics: Misc.]
Luddites
arch-conservative workmen; smashed labor-saving machinery (1779). [Br. Hist.: Espy, 107]
Republican Party
U.S. political party, generally espousing a conservative platform. [Am. Hist.: Jameson, 424]
Warbucks, Daddy
espouses a reactionary law-and-order society threatened by decadence, bureaucracy, and loss of Puritan virtues. [Comics: Berger, 84]
References in periodicals archive ?
Nonetheless, a strong case can be made that Humanists can't be political conservatives.
Over time, they became pro-life in one area only and only endorsed political conservatives who fell short in so many other Catholic areas of concern, like caring for the poor, universal health care, giving shelter to the homeless and refugees, equal educational opportunities for all children, jobs and minimum wages and the right of workers to organize, ending world hunger, protecting children worldwide, ending war and seeking peace, protecting farmers and their families, caring for the environment and conserving our natural resources.
In their book, "Prison Break: Why Conservatives Turned Against Mass Incarceration," authors David Dagan and Stephen Teles detail how political conservatives embraced a movement to take a "sensible stand on stiff sentencing and more prisons.
That's the "consensus of the wise" dispensed by the establishment media, "progressive" politicians and academics, globalist think tanks--and even many political conservatives.
This finding might point to the fact that there are even fewer conservatives in the academy--especially political conservatives, who have good reason to doubt the value of expertise--than the authors suggest.
Of course, theological liberals who are also political liberals are clearly in favor of climate action, while typically theological conservatives who are also political conservatives have been opposed to action.
However, a closer look across levels of religiosity shows that this political gap is larger among the nonreligious (a difference of 12 percentage points between extreme political conservatives and extreme political liberals) and smaller among the very religious (a difference of three percentage points).
When a report surfaced earlier this month that Facebook's "Trending Topics" team was routinely suppressing news of interest to political conservatives, CEO Mark Zuckerberg did the right thing.
Political conservatives may bridle at the pacifist, civil-disobedience agenda this volume promotes.
Optimists -- to which I count myself -- hope that an AKP setback this Sunday may set in motion a process of realignment within the ranks of Turkey's political conservatives, led by those who want to build a future for their party and their country outside the stranglehold of the Ak Saray strongman.
The conservatives learned how to use the religious rightwing to their advantage by commandeering public debate and ramping up what to the political conservatives were peripheral social issues.
They have entered an unholy alliance with political conservatives who also resist every sign of movement toward a multiracial, multi-cultural nation that honors its commitment to equality.