Patronage

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Related to Political patronage: Patron system

patronage

1. in politics
a. the practice of making appointments to office, granting contracts, etc.
b. the favours so distributed
2. Christianity the right to present a clergyman to a benefice

Patronage

 

in ancient Italy, a form of protection that in practice established the dependence of poor citizens and citizens with less than full rights upon wealthy citizens.

In the period of the disintegration of the clan system, members of impoverished clans, as well as some plebeians, placed themselves under the patronage of influential fellow citizens. In the period of the late Roman Empire, petty landowners or even whole villages, communities, and towns placed themselves under the patronage of various senators. By transferring their land to a patron and receiving it back in the form of a precarium (property held at the will of the grantor), petty landowners attempted to avoid burdensome taxation and protect themselves from oppression by officials, judges, and usurers. The patronage system is discussed by F. Engels in The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State (K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 21, page 149).


Patronage

 

(release on surety), in Soviet criminal law, one of the forms by which a person is freed from criminal responsibility when his actions did not have serious consequences and he does not present a great social danger. Upon petition of an organization or workers’ collective, the offender is turned over to that organization or collective for reeducation and correction by decision of a court or procurator or by decision of an investigator or agency of inquiry with the consent of a procurator. Release on surety is not possible for recidivists and persons who have been released on surety earlier. If a person so released does not justify the trust of the collective in the course of one year, the collective’s decision to terminate its patronage is sent to the court or procurator and the question of criminal responsibility is then reviewed (art. 9 of the Code of Criminal Procedure of the RSFSR).

Patronage

See also Philanthropy.
Alidoro
fairy godfather to Italian Cinderella. [Ital. Opera: Rossini, Cinderella, Westerman, 120–121]
Alphonso, Don
supports Bias in return for political favors. [Fr. Lit.: Gil Blas]
Dionysus
inspired men through wine; considered a patron of the arts. [Gk. Myth.: NCE, 767]
Fairy Godmother
maternal fairy abets Cinderella in ball preparations. [Fr. Fairy Tale: “Cinderella”]
References in periodicals archive ?
What we have here (are) fundamentally decent people utterly without a moral compass in a field awash with political patronage.
The gathering first heard from broadcaster Tom McGuirk who said political patronage has to end in Ireland.
That the Gujarat riots of 2002 were stoked by political patronage goes without saying (ministers in the state have been formally convicted for this).
He called for democratic election in Pakistan Cricket Board (PCB) to end what he alleged was the political patronage.
What de Wl doesn't say is that the only way such a "structural transformation" can take place is to "dismantle" this deeply corrupt and grossly self-enriching regime, as well as its vast political patronage system, and end the unconstrained brutality of the "security institutions" that preserve the regime's hold on power.
Pensado aims to expand on the history of student activism and conservative reactions by examining Mexico's postwar student culture, political patronage, and violence in Mexico City after the 1940s, particularly highlighting the "long sixties" (1956-ca.
The troika has bailed out Greece to the tune of 240 billion euros ($320 billion)but has warned that it will stop paying out the money unless Athens pushes forward with reforming a corruption-prone state apparatus where hiring is often driven by political patronage.
Foreign lenders have warned that the billions of euros in aid payments Greece needs to stay afloat cannot continue unless it pushes ahead to reform a corruption-prone state apparatus, where hirings were often made for political patronage.
The election was always expected to be closely fought, and the results contested, as political patronage is huge in Albania - with the winners historically undertaking a wholesale clearance of civil servants/bureaucrats.
Political patronage and favoritism crop up in every government across the world, and political appointees, of course, have their defenders.
Martin Van Buren, head of the Bucktail faction of the Democratic-Republican Party in Albany, New York, was a particularly enthusiastic practitioner of political patronage.
The chief architect of the Mumbai mayhem -- Lashkar-e-Toiba (LeT) founder Hafiz Saeed -- has still been roaming Pakistani streets as a free man under political patronage.