Cumans

(redirected from Polovtsians)

Cumans

or

Kumans

(both: ko͞o`mänz), nomadic East Turkic people, identified with the Kipchaks (or the western branch of the Kipchaks) and known in Russian as Polovtsi. Coming from NW Asian Russia, they conquered S Russia and Walachia in the 11th cent., and for almost two centuries warred intermittently with the Byzantine Empire, Hungary, and Kiev. They founded a nomadic state in the steppes along the Black Sea, and were active in commerce with Central Asia and Venice. In the early 12th cent. the main Cuman forces were defeated by the Eastern Slavs. The Mongols decisively defeated the Cumans c.1245. Some were sold as slaves, and many took refuge in Bulgaria and also in Hungary, where they were gradually assimilated into the Hungarian culture. Others joined the khanate of the Golden Horde (also called the Western Kipchaks), which was organized on the former Cuman territory in Russia.
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References in periodicals archive ?
The first opera of Royal Opera House Muscat's (ROHM) new 2018-19 season is a spectacular work dramatising one of the greatest Russian epic tales of all time - Prince Igor of Seversk's courageous, but ill-fated military campaign against a marauding tribe of Polovtsians in 12th century Russia.
The Mariinsky Ballet will perform Borodin's famous Polovtsian dances in a spectacular scene that provides one of the opera's many thrilling climaxes.
Pletneva's articles on the Polovtsians, it is remarkably lacking in Russian-language scholarly literature and sources.
In her cycle of poems begun in 1921 and continued until she left Russia, "Prisoner of the Khan," she compares the Bolshevik victory to the invasion of the Polovtsians in the twelfth century and the Tatars in the fourteenth.
1914-84) in pointing out that oriental steel is not found in 12th-century East Slavic archeological contexts; and Ananiasz Zajaczkowski (1903-70) in the claim that the word kharaluzhnyi cannot be connected with the language of the Polovtsians. Zimin fails, however, to note the systematic substitution, in otherwise parallel passages, of the "bulamyi" of Zadonshchina and Skazanie o Mamaevom poboishche by "kharaluzhnyi," and that "kharalug," a hapax legomenon, is probably a learned, but mistaken, back-formation from kharaluzhnyi.