antiphon

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Antiphon

(ăn`tĭfŏn, –fən), c.479–411 B.C., Athenian orator. He rarely spoke in public but wrote defenses for others to speak. Of his 15 extant orations 3 were for use in court, the rest probably for the instruction of his pupils. A few fragments of other speeches survive. Antiphon did much to advance Attic prose writing. His position in politics was with the conservative aristocrats, and he was instrumental in setting up the Four Hundred in 411 B.C. When they fell, Antiphon was among the first to be executed before AlcibiadesAlcibiades
, c.450–404 B.C., Athenian statesman and general. Of the family of Alcmaeonidae, he was a ward of Pericles and was for many years a devoted attendant of Socrates. He turned to politics after the Peace of Nicias (421 B.C.
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 returned.

Bibliography

See R. K. Sprague, The Older Sophists (1972); Antiphon and Lysias (tr. by M. Edwards and S. Usher, 1985).


antiphon

(ăn`tĭfən), in Roman Catholic liturgical music, generally a short text sung before and after a psalm or canticle. The main use is in group singing of the Divine Office in a monastery. However, the sung introit, offertory, and communion verses of the Mass are also antiphons, whose psalms have for the most part disappeared. Certain festival chants, sung preparatory to the Mass itself, are called antiphons. There are also the four antiphons of the Blessed Virgin Mary, which are in the nature of office hymns and are sung by alternating choirs (i.e., antiphonally), each one belonging to a certain portion of the year. The best known of these is Salve Regina, of whose text there are many polyphonic settings. Modern antiphons are set to composed music rather than plainsongplainsong
or plainchant,
the unharmonized chant of the medieval Christian liturgies in Europe and the Middle East; usually synonymous with Gregorian chant, the liturgical music of the Roman Catholic Church.
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. These are independent choral works for which the English term anthemanthem
[ultimately from antiphon], short nonliturgical choral composition used in Protestant services, usually accompanied and having an English text. The term is used in a broader sense for "national anthems" and for the Latin motets still used occasionally in Anglican services.
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 was derived from antiphon.

antiphon

1. a short passage, usually from the Bible, recited or sung as a response after certain parts of a liturgical service
2. a psalm, hymn, etc., chanted or sung in alternate parts
References in periodicals archive ?
Paraphrase I outlines the varied reception history of Schutz's music from the late nineteenth century through the beginning of World War II, with particular attention to Psalmen Davids and his other polychoral works.
However, because O'Regan has already done a good deal of work on some of the other confraternities in Rome, particularly surrounding the use of polychoral music, perhaps one could have asked that he provide a more overarching, comprehensive study of the musical life of all the confraternities as well as an elaboration of their rituals and ceremonies.
Perhaps some of this music is preserved in the Flosculus vernalis for three to eight voices and continuo, Plautzius's sole published collection and one that confirms the persistence of polychoral practices as well as traditional contrapuntal styles north of the Alps in the early seventeenth century.
Featuring polychoral works by Gabrieli, Monteverdi and others, as performed in the lavish Christmas celebrations in St Mark's in Venice, this was a celebration of the repertoire associated with "the floating city" (I gather it has almost as many canals as Birmingham), based on the Vigil of Christmas at Vespers as set out in sources in the Venetian State Archive.
Following this introduction, Spitzer and Zaslaw proceed to explore the many-layered development of that institution from the pre- and "proto-orchestral" ensembles that accompanied sixteenth-century Florentine intermedii and seventeenth-century Viennese operas, English masques, Parisian ballets de cour, and Venetian polychoral sacred music, to the professional subscription-concert orchestras of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries which, by that time, constituted "parallel organizations within an internationally integrated field" and are "recognizable as the direct ancestor[s] of modern orchestras" (p.
We had an example of late-ish Stravinsky in the Canticum Sacrum, composed for St Mark's in Venice in 1955, and showing some awareness of the great polychoral works written for that cathedral over three centuries earlier.
The repertory ranges from conservative contrapuntal works, especially in the first period, to small sacred concertos and large-scale polychoral (and sometimes concerted) settings, the latter most notably by the Duomo's maestro di cappella Ignazio Donati.
At the core of the collection, however, are polychoral motets for eight voices.
This was the rationale of Ex Cathedra's latest visit to Warwick, and with Jeffrey Skidmore showing his well-known flair for programming we found Charpentier's grand Mass for four choirs interspersed with another of his polychoral works, the Salve Regina for three choirs, four of his 'O' antiphons, contemporary settings of the same texts commissioned recently by the choir itself, and two of Guillaume Gabriel Nivers' interesting plainsong settings.
With this Mass, Capillas took a polychoral approach that harked back explicitly to the great masters of Renaissance polyphony, though the work is not entirely innocent of baroque elements.
Polychoral Crucifixus settings by Caldara and Lotti (his eight-parter a real harmonic tingler) and verse anthems by Byrd, Tomkins and Gibbons contrasted vividly with the simple directness of Lord's Prayer settings by Jacob Handl and John Sheppard, and Peter Philips' exultant Ascendit Deus.
The majority of the polychoral works are scored for two four-part choirs, though the most striking pieces are by Monteverdi's teacher, Marc'Antonio Ingegneri, and in particular his triple-choir motets for ten, twelve, and sixteen voices dedicated to Cardinal Niccolo Sfondrati, later Pope Gregory XIV (see edition no.