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(ăn`tĭfŏn, –fən), c.479–411 B.C., Athenian orator. He rarely spoke in public but wrote defenses for others to speak. Of his 15 extant orations 3 were for use in court, the rest probably for the instruction of his pupils. A few fragments of other speeches survive. Antiphon did much to advance Attic prose writing. His position in politics was with the conservative aristocrats, and he was instrumental in setting up the Four Hundred in 411 B.C. When they fell, Antiphon was among the first to be executed before AlcibiadesAlcibiades
, c.450–404 B.C., Athenian statesman and general. Of the family of Alcmaeonidae, he was a ward of Pericles and was for many years a devoted attendant of Socrates. He turned to politics after the Peace of Nicias (421 B.C.
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See R. K. Sprague, The Older Sophists (1972); Antiphon and Lysias (tr. by M. Edwards and S. Usher, 1985).


(ăn`tĭfən), in Roman Catholic liturgical music, generally a short text sung before and after a psalm or canticle. The main use is in group singing of the Divine Office in a monastery. However, the sung introit, offertory, and communion verses of the Mass are also antiphons, whose psalms have for the most part disappeared. Certain festival chants, sung preparatory to the Mass itself, are called antiphons. There are also the four antiphons of the Blessed Virgin Mary, which are in the nature of office hymns and are sung by alternating choirs (i.e., antiphonally), each one belonging to a certain portion of the year. The best known of these is Salve Regina, of whose text there are many polyphonic settings. Modern antiphons are set to composed music rather than plainsongplainsong
or plainchant,
the unharmonized chant of the medieval Christian liturgies in Europe and the Middle East; usually synonymous with Gregorian chant, the liturgical music of the Roman Catholic Church.
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. These are independent choral works for which the English term anthemanthem
[ultimately from antiphon], short nonliturgical choral composition used in Protestant services, usually accompanied and having an English text. The term is used in a broader sense for "national anthems" and for the Latin motets still used occasionally in Anglican services.
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 was derived from antiphon.
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1. a short passage, usually from the Bible, recited or sung as a response after certain parts of a liturgical service
2. a psalm, hymn, etc., chanted or sung in alternate parts
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Paraphrase I outlines the varied reception history of Schutz's music from the late nineteenth century through the beginning of World War II, with particular attention to Psalmen Davids and his other polychoral works.
"We first created our Supersize Polyphony programme back in 2007, trying to explore ways that would bring to life for 21st century audiences the extraordinary world of enormous polychoral works from the 16th century," he tells me.
Taking into account the fact that in the revised verses of the 1600 version of the polychoral Magnificats (primi and sexti toni) Victoria abandoned diverse head motives, this striving for thematic uniformity of the head motives in the manuscript version represents a progressive factor.
If Maderna in his later compositions and transcriptions referred to the Venetian polychoral tradition in the spatial distribution of voices and instruments, this trait is apparent only indirectly in his Requiem.
A niche element of their repertoire has always remained baroque music, and Saturday's concert took us right to the heart of Venetian polychoral music, with magnificent liturgical settings by Giovanni Gabrieli.
Periods and composers that come to mind include Palestrina and the late-sixteenth century polychoral repertoire, or Handel's Messiah when performed with a large choir and orchestra in a cathedral or open-air setting.
Wilson takes the easy solution and creates in effect a large-scale concert of polychoral motets, instrumental canzonas, and pieces for one to six solo voices.
The only glaring omission in this section (again, it may be reserved for a forthcoming study) is a context for the twelve-voice polychoral motet at the end of the book, `Laudate Dominum'.
Similar considerations apply to most of the polychoral pieces, which feature a rather strong theatrical component.
Those were partially conveyed in Striggio's Ecce beatam lucem, the grand-daddy of all these polychoral pieces, sung from up aloft, before, back down below, this crack chorus delivered Gabriel Jackson's Sanctum est verum lumen, cunningly wrought, but outstaying its welcome.
Noel O'Regan points out in the introduction to his edition that 'although long associated in the public mind only with Venice, the polychoral idiom became widespread throughout Catholic Europe in the years from 1575 onwards, with Rome producing more such works than any other centre'.
It must have been in the polychoral idiom and the particularly Roman sectionalized concertato style that Agazzari was most influenced by Roman composers, especially by those active at the German College, where dialogues, for example, were already popular.