Polygonum


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Polygonum

 

knotweed, a genus of annual and perennial herbs, less frequently, semishrubs and shrubs, of the family Polygonaceae. Their stems are erect, prostrate, or sometimes twining. The perianth is usually a corolla of four to six small leaves: there are four to eight stamens and two to three styles. The fruit is triquetrous or lenticular, remaining more or less fully enclosed in the perianth. There are 300 species, mostly found in temperate and tropical regions. In the USSR there are more than 120 species.

From a biological point of view several species are particularly interesting. Willowgrass (Polygonum amphibium) is found in two forms, an aquatic one and one growing in moist places (one form is capable of transforming into the other); serpent grass (P. viviparum) has lower flowers that are mostly turned into bulblets and used for vegetative propagation. Many members of the genus have economic value. Bistort (P. bisunta), peachwort (P. persicaria), knotweed (P. aviculare), and several others are used in medicine. The extract or infusion of the dried terrestrial sterile and fertile stems of water pepper (P. hydropiper) is used as an an-tihemorrhagic substance, primarily in the case of uterine hemorrhages; it is also part of the composition of the antihemorrhoidal “anestezol” suppositories. Middle Asian representatives of the genus known by the name alpine knot-weed (P. alpinum, P. coriarium, and others) are used as tanning substances.

Knotweed. black bindweed (P. convolvulus), and copse knotweed (P. dumetorum), are weeds. The last two species, as well as the cultivated (as an ornamental) fleece flower (P. baldschuanicum), are often distinguished as a separate genus, Bilderdykia. Three species of Polygonum—Sakhalin knotweed. cuspidate knotweed. and Weirich knotweed, all with a large amount of greenery—are good fodder plants. Many members of the genus are good nectar plants. Some species—for example, P. tinctorium—can be used to obtain dyes.

REFERENCES

Atlas lekarstvennykh rastenii SSSR. Moscow, 1962.
Webb, D. A., and A. O. Chater. “Polygonum L.” In Flora Eu-ropaea, vol. 1. Cambridge, 1964.

M. E. KIRPICHNIKOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Yi-Ping Huang, and Jing-Gung Chung.(2015) Crude extract of Polygonum euspidatum stimulates immune responses in normal mice by increasing the percentage of Mac-3-positive cells and enhancing macrophage phagocytic activity and natural killer cell cytotoxicity.
Lin et al., "Traditional usages, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.: a review," Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol.
Finally, it is worth mentioning that this research was the first to demonstrate the effect of an aqueous extract of Polygonum hydropiper L.
Nectarios en forma de disco crenulado en la base de los filamentos, raro ausentes Polygonum Persicaria capitata (Buch.-Ham.
Phytochemical and biological evaluation of polygonum amplexicaule rhizome extract.
Niu et al., "Evidence chain-based causality identification in herb-induced liver injury: exemplification of a well-known liver-restorative herb Polygonum multiflorum," Frontiers of Medicine, vol.
As an active component extracted from Polygonum multiflorum, TSG showed obvious protection effects in a series of diseases.
The functional megaspore undergoes three successive mitoses resulting in the formation of an 8- nucleate embryo sac of the Polygonum type.
Gastroprotective activity of Polygonum chinense aqueous leaf extract on ethanol-induced hemorrhagic mucosal lesions in rats.
Triffid For an eyesore emergency try Polygonum baldschuanicum - also known as Russian vine and sometimes as milea-minute because of the speed it grows.