Caption: Polymetallic nodules (left)--seen here with Psychropotes longicauda, a species of sea cucumber--dot the abyssal plains that cover nearly two-thirds of the earth's surface.
1: The Polymetallic Nodule Ecosystem of the Eastern Equatorial Pacific Ocean.
There are currently 12 contractors for the exploration of polymetallic nodules
, (71) yet the Advisory Opinion implied that only two State Parties (Germany and the Czech Republic) have adopted relevant domestic laws and regulations.
However, when the principle of freedom of the sea was elaborated, nobody had in mind the problems posed by super-tankers, nuclear-propelled vessels, off-shore drilling, mining for polymetallic nodules
, fishing with driftnets, bioprospecting and many other activities which take place in the marine environment today.
35) International Seabed Authority, The Regulations on Prospecting and Exploration For Polymetallic Nodules
in the Area, ISBA/6/A/18, 13 July 2000.
Environmentally responsible collection of polymetallic nodules
presents a complex engineering challenge, but our team has the knowledge and experience necessary to help position the UK at the forefront of this emerging industry," says Ball.
Ministry of Earth Sciences is carrying out Survey & Exploration, Environmental Impact Assessment, Technology Development (Mining and Extractive Metallurgy) under polymetallic nodules
program through various national institutes viz.
Under the exploration licence, OMS intends to conduct environmental studies and to survey for deposits of polymetallic nodules
within the approved area.
Speaking at an ocean mining industry round table meeting held in Tokyo, Japan on 28 January 2014, Secretary-General Odunton said the first of a series of three workshops to develop a standardized taxonomy for megafauna associated with polymetallic nodule
deposits was convened in 2013.
In accordance with the Regulations on Prospecting and Exploration for Polymetallic Nodules
in the Area, the members of the Legal and Technical Commission will be notified of the above application and consideration of this application will be placed on the agenda of the Commission at its next meeting, which is scheduled to commence on 3 February 2014.
contain cobalt, manganese, copper, and nickel, in addition to small amounts of iron and aluminium as well as rare metals such as tellurium, molybdenum and titanium.
The Assembly, in another decision, adopted amendments to the Regulations on Prospecting and Exploration for Polymetallic Nodules
in the Area, as contained in the annex to the decision of the Council.